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Tocolytics for preterm premature rupture of membranes.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

In women with preterm labor, tocolysis has not been shown to improve perinatal mortality; however, it is often given for 48 hours to allow for the corticosteroid effect for fetal maturation. In women with preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM), the use of tocolysis is still controversial. In theory, tocolysis may prolong pregnancy in women with PPROM, thereby allowing for the corticosteroid benefit and reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with prematurity.

OBJECTIVES

To assess the potential benefits and harms of tocolysis in women with preterm premature rupture of membranes.

SEARCH STRATEGY

We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (6 April 2011), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 1), MEDLINE (1966 to 6 April 2011) and EMBASE (1974 to 6 April 2011).

SELECTION CRITERIA

We included pregnant women with singleton pregnancies and PPROM (23 weeks to 36 weeks and six days). We included any tocolytic therapy compared to no tocolytic, placebo, or another tocolytic.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS

All review authors assessed the studies for inclusion. We extracted and quality assessed data.

MAIN RESULTS

We included eight studies with a total of 408 women. Seven of the studies compared tocolysis to no tocolysis. One study compared nifedipine to terbutaline. Compared to no tocolysis, tocolysis was not associated with a significant effect on perinatal mortality in women with PPROM (risk ratio (RR) 1.67; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.85 to 3.29). Tocolysis was associated with longer latency (mean difference (MD) 73.12 hours; 95% CI 20.21 to 126.03; three trials of 198 women) and fewer births within 48 hours (average RR 0.55; 95% CI 0.32 to 0.95; six trials of 354 women; random-effects, T(2) = 0.18, I(2) = 43%) compared to no tocolysis. However, tocolysis was associated with increased five-minute Apgar of less than seven (RR 6.05; 95% CI 1.65 to 22.23; two trials of 160 women) and increased need for ventilation of the neonate (RR 2.46; 95% CI 1.14 to 5.34; one trial of 81 women). In the subgroup analysis comparing betamimetic to no betamimetics, tocolysis was associated with increased latency and borderline significance for chorioamnionitis. Prophylactic tocolysis with PPROM was associated with increased overall latency, without additional benefits for maternal/neonatal outcomes. For patients with PPROM before 34 weeks, there was a significantly increased risk of chorioamnionitis in women who received tocolysis. However, neonatal outcomes were not significantly different. There were no significant differences in maternal/neonatal outcomes in subgroup analyses comparing cox inhibitor versus no tocolysis, calcium channel blocker versus betamimetic, antibiotic, corticosteroid or combined antibiotic/corticosteroid.

AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS

Our review suggests there is insufficient evidence to support tocolytic therapy for women with PPROM, as there was an increase in maternal chorioamnionitis without significant benefits to the infant. However, studies did not consistently administer latency antibiotics and corticosteroids, both of which are now considered standard of care.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Thomas Jefferson University, 834 Chestnut Street, Suite 400, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, PA 19107.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Meta-Analysis
Review
Systematic Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

21975760

Citation

Mackeen, A Dhanya, et al. "Tocolytics for Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes." The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2011, p. CD007062.
Mackeen AD, Seibel-Seamon J, Grimes-Dennis J, et al. Tocolytics for preterm premature rupture of membranes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011.
Mackeen, A. D., Seibel-Seamon, J., Grimes-Dennis, J., Baxter, J. K., & Berghella, V. (2011). Tocolytics for preterm premature rupture of membranes. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (10), CD007062. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD007062.pub2
Mackeen AD, et al. Tocolytics for Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Oct 5;(10)CD007062. PubMed PMID: 21975760.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Tocolytics for preterm premature rupture of membranes. AU - Mackeen,A Dhanya, AU - Seibel-Seamon,Jolene, AU - Grimes-Dennis,Jacqueline, AU - Baxter,Jason K, AU - Berghella,Vincenzo, Y1 - 2011/10/05/ PY - 2011/10/7/entrez PY - 2011/10/7/pubmed PY - 2011/11/4/medline SP - CD007062 EP - CD007062 JF - The Cochrane database of systematic reviews JO - Cochrane Database Syst Rev IS - 10 N2 - BACKGROUND: In women with preterm labor, tocolysis has not been shown to improve perinatal mortality; however, it is often given for 48 hours to allow for the corticosteroid effect for fetal maturation. In women with preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM), the use of tocolysis is still controversial. In theory, tocolysis may prolong pregnancy in women with PPROM, thereby allowing for the corticosteroid benefit and reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with prematurity. OBJECTIVES: To assess the potential benefits and harms of tocolysis in women with preterm premature rupture of membranes. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (6 April 2011), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 1), MEDLINE (1966 to 6 April 2011) and EMBASE (1974 to 6 April 2011). SELECTION CRITERIA: We included pregnant women with singleton pregnancies and PPROM (23 weeks to 36 weeks and six days). We included any tocolytic therapy compared to no tocolytic, placebo, or another tocolytic. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: All review authors assessed the studies for inclusion. We extracted and quality assessed data. MAIN RESULTS: We included eight studies with a total of 408 women. Seven of the studies compared tocolysis to no tocolysis. One study compared nifedipine to terbutaline. Compared to no tocolysis, tocolysis was not associated with a significant effect on perinatal mortality in women with PPROM (risk ratio (RR) 1.67; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.85 to 3.29). Tocolysis was associated with longer latency (mean difference (MD) 73.12 hours; 95% CI 20.21 to 126.03; three trials of 198 women) and fewer births within 48 hours (average RR 0.55; 95% CI 0.32 to 0.95; six trials of 354 women; random-effects, T(2) = 0.18, I(2) = 43%) compared to no tocolysis. However, tocolysis was associated with increased five-minute Apgar of less than seven (RR 6.05; 95% CI 1.65 to 22.23; two trials of 160 women) and increased need for ventilation of the neonate (RR 2.46; 95% CI 1.14 to 5.34; one trial of 81 women). In the subgroup analysis comparing betamimetic to no betamimetics, tocolysis was associated with increased latency and borderline significance for chorioamnionitis. Prophylactic tocolysis with PPROM was associated with increased overall latency, without additional benefits for maternal/neonatal outcomes. For patients with PPROM before 34 weeks, there was a significantly increased risk of chorioamnionitis in women who received tocolysis. However, neonatal outcomes were not significantly different. There were no significant differences in maternal/neonatal outcomes in subgroup analyses comparing cox inhibitor versus no tocolysis, calcium channel blocker versus betamimetic, antibiotic, corticosteroid or combined antibiotic/corticosteroid. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Our review suggests there is insufficient evidence to support tocolytic therapy for women with PPROM, as there was an increase in maternal chorioamnionitis without significant benefits to the infant. However, studies did not consistently administer latency antibiotics and corticosteroids, both of which are now considered standard of care. SN - 1469-493X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/21975760/Tocolytics_for_preterm_premature_rupture_of_membranes_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD007062.pub2 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -