Convergent/Divergent validity of the brief multidimensional measure of religiousness/spirituality: empirical support for emotional connectedness as a "spiritual" construct.J Relig Health 2012; 51(2):529-41JR
The objective of this article is to determine the convergent/divergent validity of the Brief Multidimensional Measure of Religiousness/Spirituality (BMMRS; Fetzer Institute & National Institute on Aging Working Group 1999) subscales by correlating it with the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) Self-Transcendence subscales (i.e., Mysticism, Transpersonal Identification, Self-Forgetfulness; Cloninger et al. 1994). The cross-sectional analysis of 97 undergraduate/graduate students from a Midwestern university was made. The results are (1) all five BMMRS spirituality subscales were significantly correlated with the TCI Mysticism scale; (2) two BMMRS scales (i.e., Daily Spiritual Experiences, Values/Beliefs) were significantly correlated with the TCI Transpersonal Identification scales; (3) no BMMRS spiritual subscales were significantly correlated with the TCI Self-Forgetfulness scale; and (4) of the BMMRS religion scales, only the Organizational Religiousness subscale was correlated with any TCI subscale (i.e., Mysticism). The BMMRS appears to have adequate convergent/divergent validity, although the need exists to determine specific dimensions of spirituality. Inspection of the specific items of the BMMRS and TCI spiritual subscales that were most consistently correlated (i.e., BMMRS Daily Spiritual Experiences, Values/Beliefs; TCI Mysticism, Transpersonal Identification) suggests the existence of a distinct spiritual construct that is best conceptualized as the experience of emotional connectedness to the divine, nature, and/or others.