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Linking the pharmacological content of ecstasy tablets to the subjective experiences of drug users.
Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2012 Apr; 220(4):751-62.P

Abstract

RATIONALE

Most studies on the subjective effects of ecstasy are based on the assumption that the substance that was taken is 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). However, many tablets sold as ecstasy contain other substances and MDMA in varying doses. So far, few attempts have been made to take this into account while assessing subjective effects.

OBJECTIVES

This study aims to link the pharmacological content of tablets sold as ecstasy to the subjective experiences reported by ecstasy users.

METHODS

Self-reported effects on ecstasy tablets were available from 5,786 drug users who handed in their tablets for chemical analysis at the Drug Information and Monitoring System (DIMS) in the Netherlands. Logistic regression was employed to link the pharmacological content of ecstasy tablets to the self-reported subjective effects and compare effects with MDMA to other substances present.

RESULTS

MDMA showed a strong association with desirable subjective effects, unparalleled by any other psychoactive substance. However, the association of MDMA was dose-dependent, with higher doses (>120 mg/tablet) likely to evoke more adverse effects. The novel psychostimulants mephedrone and p-fluoroamphetamine were considered relatively desirable, whereas meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) and p-methoxymethamphetamine (PMMA) were strongly associated with adverse subjective effects. Also, 3,4-methylene-dioxyamphetamine (MDA) and benzylpiperazine (BZP) were not appreciated as replacement for MDMA.

CONCLUSION

Linking the pharmacological content of ecstasy sold on the street to subjective experiences contributes to a better understanding of the wide range of subjective effects ascribed to ecstasy and provides a strong rationale for the prolonged endurance of MDMA as the key ingredient of the ecstasy market.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Drug Information and Monitoring System, Netherlands Institute of Mental Health and Addiction, Utrecht, The Netherlands. tbrunt@trimbos.nlNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

21993879

Citation

Brunt, Tibor M., et al. "Linking the Pharmacological Content of Ecstasy Tablets to the Subjective Experiences of Drug Users." Psychopharmacology, vol. 220, no. 4, 2012, pp. 751-62.
Brunt TM, Koeter MW, Niesink RJ, et al. Linking the pharmacological content of ecstasy tablets to the subjective experiences of drug users. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2012;220(4):751-62.
Brunt, T. M., Koeter, M. W., Niesink, R. J., & van den Brink, W. (2012). Linking the pharmacological content of ecstasy tablets to the subjective experiences of drug users. Psychopharmacology, 220(4), 751-62. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-011-2529-4
Brunt TM, et al. Linking the Pharmacological Content of Ecstasy Tablets to the Subjective Experiences of Drug Users. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2012;220(4):751-62. PubMed PMID: 21993879.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Linking the pharmacological content of ecstasy tablets to the subjective experiences of drug users. AU - Brunt,Tibor M, AU - Koeter,Maarten W, AU - Niesink,Raymond J M, AU - van den Brink,Wim, Y1 - 2011/10/13/ PY - 2011/07/14/received PY - 2011/09/26/accepted PY - 2011/10/14/entrez PY - 2011/10/14/pubmed PY - 2012/12/27/medline SP - 751 EP - 62 JF - Psychopharmacology JO - Psychopharmacology (Berl.) VL - 220 IS - 4 N2 - RATIONALE: Most studies on the subjective effects of ecstasy are based on the assumption that the substance that was taken is 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). However, many tablets sold as ecstasy contain other substances and MDMA in varying doses. So far, few attempts have been made to take this into account while assessing subjective effects. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to link the pharmacological content of tablets sold as ecstasy to the subjective experiences reported by ecstasy users. METHODS: Self-reported effects on ecstasy tablets were available from 5,786 drug users who handed in their tablets for chemical analysis at the Drug Information and Monitoring System (DIMS) in the Netherlands. Logistic regression was employed to link the pharmacological content of ecstasy tablets to the self-reported subjective effects and compare effects with MDMA to other substances present. RESULTS: MDMA showed a strong association with desirable subjective effects, unparalleled by any other psychoactive substance. However, the association of MDMA was dose-dependent, with higher doses (>120 mg/tablet) likely to evoke more adverse effects. The novel psychostimulants mephedrone and p-fluoroamphetamine were considered relatively desirable, whereas meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) and p-methoxymethamphetamine (PMMA) were strongly associated with adverse subjective effects. Also, 3,4-methylene-dioxyamphetamine (MDA) and benzylpiperazine (BZP) were not appreciated as replacement for MDMA. CONCLUSION: Linking the pharmacological content of ecstasy sold on the street to subjective experiences contributes to a better understanding of the wide range of subjective effects ascribed to ecstasy and provides a strong rationale for the prolonged endurance of MDMA as the key ingredient of the ecstasy market. SN - 1432-2072 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/21993879/Linking_the_pharmacological_content_of_ecstasy_tablets_to_the_subjective_experiences_of_drug_users_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00213-011-2529-4 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -