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More and More Coronaviruses: Human Coronavirus HKU1.
Viruses. 2009 Jun; 1(1):57-71.V

Abstract

After human coronaviruses OC43, 229E and NL63, human coronavirus HKU1 (HCoV-HKU1) is the fourth human coronavirus discovered. HCoV-HKU1 is a group 2a coronavirus that is still not cultivable. The G + C contents of HCoV-HKU1 genomes are 32%, the lowest among all known coronaviruses with complete genome sequences available. Among all coronaviruses, HCoV-HKU1 shows the most extreme codon usage bias, attributed most importantly to severe cytosine deamination. All HCoV-HKU1 genomes contain unique tandem copies of a 30-base acidic tandem repeat of unknown function at the N-terminus of nsp3 inside the acidic domain upstream of papain-like protease 1. Three genotypes, A, B and C, of HCoV-HKU1 and homologous recombination among their genomes, are observed. The incidence of HCoV-HKU1 infections is the highest in winter. Similar to other human coronaviruses, HCoV-HKU1 infections have been reported globally, with a median (range) incidence of 0.9 (0 - 4.4) %. HCoV-HKU1 is associated with both upper and lower respiratory tract infections that are mostly self-limiting. The most common method for diagnosing HCoV-HKU1 infection is RT-PCR or real-time RT-PCR using RNA extracted from respiratory tract samples such as nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA). Both the pol and nucleocapsid genes have been used as the targets for amplification. Monoclonal antibodies have been generated for direct antigen detection in NPA. For antibody detection, Escherichia coli BL21 and baculovirus-expressed recombinant nucleocapsid of HCoV-HKU1 have been used for IgG and IgM detection in sera of patients and normal individuals, using Western blot and enzyme-linked immunoassay.

Authors+Show Affiliations

State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

21994538

Citation

Woo, Patrick C Y., et al. "More and More Coronaviruses: Human Coronavirus HKU1." Viruses, vol. 1, no. 1, 2009, pp. 57-71.
Woo PC, Lau SK, Yip CC, et al. More and More Coronaviruses: Human Coronavirus HKU1. Viruses. 2009;1(1):57-71.
Woo, P. C., Lau, S. K., Yip, C. C., Huang, Y., & Yuen, K. Y. (2009). More and More Coronaviruses: Human Coronavirus HKU1. Viruses, 1(1), 57-71. https://doi.org/10.3390/v1010057
Woo PC, et al. More and More Coronaviruses: Human Coronavirus HKU1. Viruses. 2009;1(1):57-71. PubMed PMID: 21994538.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - More and More Coronaviruses: Human Coronavirus HKU1. AU - Woo,Patrick C Y, AU - Lau,Susanna K P, AU - Yip,Cyril C Y, AU - Huang,Yi, AU - Yuen,Kwok-Yung, Y1 - 2009/06/11/ PY - 2009/05/07/received PY - 2009/06/06/revised PY - 2009/06/11/accepted PY - 2011/10/14/entrez PY - 2009/6/1/pubmed PY - 2009/6/1/medline KW - HKU1 KW - coronavirus KW - human KW - novel SP - 57 EP - 71 JF - Viruses JO - Viruses VL - 1 IS - 1 N2 - After human coronaviruses OC43, 229E and NL63, human coronavirus HKU1 (HCoV-HKU1) is the fourth human coronavirus discovered. HCoV-HKU1 is a group 2a coronavirus that is still not cultivable. The G + C contents of HCoV-HKU1 genomes are 32%, the lowest among all known coronaviruses with complete genome sequences available. Among all coronaviruses, HCoV-HKU1 shows the most extreme codon usage bias, attributed most importantly to severe cytosine deamination. All HCoV-HKU1 genomes contain unique tandem copies of a 30-base acidic tandem repeat of unknown function at the N-terminus of nsp3 inside the acidic domain upstream of papain-like protease 1. Three genotypes, A, B and C, of HCoV-HKU1 and homologous recombination among their genomes, are observed. The incidence of HCoV-HKU1 infections is the highest in winter. Similar to other human coronaviruses, HCoV-HKU1 infections have been reported globally, with a median (range) incidence of 0.9 (0 - 4.4) %. HCoV-HKU1 is associated with both upper and lower respiratory tract infections that are mostly self-limiting. The most common method for diagnosing HCoV-HKU1 infection is RT-PCR or real-time RT-PCR using RNA extracted from respiratory tract samples such as nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA). Both the pol and nucleocapsid genes have been used as the targets for amplification. Monoclonal antibodies have been generated for direct antigen detection in NPA. For antibody detection, Escherichia coli BL21 and baculovirus-expressed recombinant nucleocapsid of HCoV-HKU1 have been used for IgG and IgM detection in sera of patients and normal individuals, using Western blot and enzyme-linked immunoassay. SN - 1999-4915 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/21994538/More_and_More_Coronaviruses:_Human_Coronavirus_HKU1_ L2 - https://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=viruses-01-00057 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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