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Exposure limits: the underestimation of absorbed cell phone radiation, especially in children.

Abstract

The existing cell phone certification process uses a plastic model of the head called the Specific Anthropomorphic Mannequin (SAM), representing the top 10% of U.S. military recruits in 1989 and greatly underestimating the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) for typical mobile phone users, especially children. A superior computer simulation certification process has been approved by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) but is not employed to certify cell phones. In the United States, the FCC determines maximum allowed exposures. Many countries, especially European Union members, use the "guidelines" of International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), a non governmental agency. Radiofrequency (RF) exposure to a head smaller than SAM will absorb a relatively higher SAR. Also, SAM uses a fluid having the average electrical properties of the head that cannot indicate differential absorption of specific brain tissue, nor absorption in children or smaller adults. The SAR for a 10-year old is up to 153% higher than the SAR for the SAM model. When electrical properties are considered, a child's head's absorption can be over two times greater, and absorption of the skull's bone marrow can be ten times greater than adults. Therefore, a new certification process is needed that incorporates different modes of use, head sizes, and tissue properties. Anatomically based models should be employed in revising safety standards for these ubiquitous modern devices and standards should be set by accountable, independent groups.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.

    , , , ,

    Source

    MeSH

    Animals
    Cell Phone
    Certification
    Child
    Computer Simulation
    Environmental Exposure
    Humans
    Radiation Dosage
    Radiation Injuries

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    21999884

    Citation

    Gandhi, Om P., et al. "Exposure Limits: the Underestimation of Absorbed Cell Phone Radiation, Especially in Children." Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, vol. 31, no. 1, 2012, pp. 34-51.
    Gandhi OP, Morgan LL, de Salles AA, et al. Exposure limits: the underestimation of absorbed cell phone radiation, especially in children. Electromagn Biol Med. 2012;31(1):34-51.
    Gandhi, O. P., Morgan, L. L., de Salles, A. A., Han, Y. Y., Herberman, R. B., & Davis, D. L. (2012). Exposure limits: the underestimation of absorbed cell phone radiation, especially in children. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, 31(1), pp. 34-51. doi:10.3109/15368378.2011.622827.
    Gandhi OP, et al. Exposure Limits: the Underestimation of Absorbed Cell Phone Radiation, Especially in Children. Electromagn Biol Med. 2012;31(1):34-51. PubMed PMID: 21999884.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Exposure limits: the underestimation of absorbed cell phone radiation, especially in children. AU - Gandhi,Om P, AU - Morgan,L Lloyd, AU - de Salles,Alvaro Augusto, AU - Han,Yueh-Ying, AU - Herberman,Ronald B, AU - Davis,Devra Lee, Y1 - 2011/10/14/ PY - 2011/10/18/entrez PY - 2011/10/18/pubmed PY - 2012/9/29/medline SP - 34 EP - 51 JF - Electromagnetic biology and medicine JO - Electromagn Biol Med VL - 31 IS - 1 N2 - The existing cell phone certification process uses a plastic model of the head called the Specific Anthropomorphic Mannequin (SAM), representing the top 10% of U.S. military recruits in 1989 and greatly underestimating the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) for typical mobile phone users, especially children. A superior computer simulation certification process has been approved by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) but is not employed to certify cell phones. In the United States, the FCC determines maximum allowed exposures. Many countries, especially European Union members, use the "guidelines" of International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), a non governmental agency. Radiofrequency (RF) exposure to a head smaller than SAM will absorb a relatively higher SAR. Also, SAM uses a fluid having the average electrical properties of the head that cannot indicate differential absorption of specific brain tissue, nor absorption in children or smaller adults. The SAR for a 10-year old is up to 153% higher than the SAR for the SAM model. When electrical properties are considered, a child's head's absorption can be over two times greater, and absorption of the skull's bone marrow can be ten times greater than adults. Therefore, a new certification process is needed that incorporates different modes of use, head sizes, and tissue properties. Anatomically based models should be employed in revising safety standards for these ubiquitous modern devices and standards should be set by accountable, independent groups. SN - 1536-8386 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/21999884/abstract/Exposure_Limits:_The_underestimation_of_absorbed_cell_phone_radiation_especially_in_children_ L2 - http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.3109/15368378.2011.622827 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -