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Effect of a high-carbohydrate, low-saturated-fat diet on apolipoprotein B and triglyceride metabolism in Pima Indians.

Abstract

The mechanisms by which high-carbohydrate, low-saturated-fat diets lower LDL cholesterol (LDLC) concentrations are unknown. In this study, kinetics of VLDL, intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL), and LDL apoprotein B and VLDL triglyceride were determined in seven nondiabetic (ND) and seven non-insulin-dependent diabetic (NIDDM) Pima Indian subjects on high-fat and high-carbohydrate (HICHO) diets. Metabolic changes were similar in ND and NIDDM. On the HICHO diet, LDLC decreased (131 +/- 8 vs. 110 +/- 7 mg/dl, P less than 0.0001) in all subjects. Mean fasting and 24-h triglyceride (TG) concentrations were unchanged, as were mean production rates and fractional clearance rates (FCR) of VLDL apoB and VLDL TG. The mean VLDL apoB pool size (303 +/- 20 vs. 371 +/- 38 mg, P = 0.01) increased owing to a decrease in the mean transport rate (10.7 +/- 1.1 vs. 8.4 +/- 0.9 mg/kg fat-free mass (ffm) per day, P less than 0.0001) and the mean rate constant (2.3 +/- 0.2 vs. 1.5 +/- 0.2, P less than 0.001) for the VLDL apoB to IDL apoB conversion pathway. The mean transport rate of VLDL apoB to LDL apoB via IDL (10.2 +/- 0.9 vs. 8.0 +/- 0.8 mg/kg ffm per day, P less than 0.001) decreased. Mean LDL apoB concentrations decreased (70 +/- 5 vs. 61 +/- 5 mg/dl, P less than 0.001) on the HICHO diet. Means for total LDL apoB transport rate, LDL apoB FCR, and LDLC/apoB ratios were unchanged. In summary, the HICHO diet decreased the activity of mechanisms that convert VLDL to LDL, which contributed to the decrease in LDLC in all subjects. There was also evidence in some subjects for increased activity of LDL apoB clearance mechanisms, and a decrease in the LDLC to apoB ratio.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

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    Clinical Diabetes and Nutrition Section, National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Phoenix, Arizona 85016.

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    MeSH

    Apolipoproteins B
    Blood Glucose
    Body Composition
    Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
    Dietary Carbohydrates
    Dietary Fats
    Fasting
    Fatty Acids
    Humans
    Indians, North American
    Insulin
    Lipids
    Lipoproteins, VLDL
    Metabolic Clearance Rate
    Triglycerides

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    2200808

    Citation

    Abbott, W G., et al. "Effect of a High-carbohydrate, Low-saturated-fat Diet On Apolipoprotein B and Triglyceride Metabolism in Pima Indians." The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 86, no. 2, 1990, pp. 642-50.
    Abbott WG, Swinburn B, Ruotolo G, et al. Effect of a high-carbohydrate, low-saturated-fat diet on apolipoprotein B and triglyceride metabolism in Pima Indians. J Clin Invest. 1990;86(2):642-50.
    Abbott, W. G., Swinburn, B., Ruotolo, G., Hara, H., Patti, L., Harper, I., ... Howard, B. V. (1990). Effect of a high-carbohydrate, low-saturated-fat diet on apolipoprotein B and triglyceride metabolism in Pima Indians. The Journal of Clinical Investigation, 86(2), pp. 642-50.
    Abbott WG, et al. Effect of a High-carbohydrate, Low-saturated-fat Diet On Apolipoprotein B and Triglyceride Metabolism in Pima Indians. J Clin Invest. 1990;86(2):642-50. PubMed PMID: 2200808.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Effect of a high-carbohydrate, low-saturated-fat diet on apolipoprotein B and triglyceride metabolism in Pima Indians. AU - Abbott,W G, AU - Swinburn,B, AU - Ruotolo,G, AU - Hara,H, AU - Patti,L, AU - Harper,I, AU - Grundy,S M, AU - Howard,B V, PY - 1990/8/1/pubmed PY - 1990/8/1/medline PY - 1990/8/1/entrez SP - 642 EP - 50 JF - The Journal of clinical investigation JO - J. Clin. Invest. VL - 86 IS - 2 N2 - The mechanisms by which high-carbohydrate, low-saturated-fat diets lower LDL cholesterol (LDLC) concentrations are unknown. In this study, kinetics of VLDL, intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL), and LDL apoprotein B and VLDL triglyceride were determined in seven nondiabetic (ND) and seven non-insulin-dependent diabetic (NIDDM) Pima Indian subjects on high-fat and high-carbohydrate (HICHO) diets. Metabolic changes were similar in ND and NIDDM. On the HICHO diet, LDLC decreased (131 +/- 8 vs. 110 +/- 7 mg/dl, P less than 0.0001) in all subjects. Mean fasting and 24-h triglyceride (TG) concentrations were unchanged, as were mean production rates and fractional clearance rates (FCR) of VLDL apoB and VLDL TG. The mean VLDL apoB pool size (303 +/- 20 vs. 371 +/- 38 mg, P = 0.01) increased owing to a decrease in the mean transport rate (10.7 +/- 1.1 vs. 8.4 +/- 0.9 mg/kg fat-free mass (ffm) per day, P less than 0.0001) and the mean rate constant (2.3 +/- 0.2 vs. 1.5 +/- 0.2, P less than 0.001) for the VLDL apoB to IDL apoB conversion pathway. The mean transport rate of VLDL apoB to LDL apoB via IDL (10.2 +/- 0.9 vs. 8.0 +/- 0.8 mg/kg ffm per day, P less than 0.001) decreased. Mean LDL apoB concentrations decreased (70 +/- 5 vs. 61 +/- 5 mg/dl, P less than 0.001) on the HICHO diet. Means for total LDL apoB transport rate, LDL apoB FCR, and LDLC/apoB ratios were unchanged. In summary, the HICHO diet decreased the activity of mechanisms that convert VLDL to LDL, which contributed to the decrease in LDLC in all subjects. There was also evidence in some subjects for increased activity of LDL apoB clearance mechanisms, and a decrease in the LDLC to apoB ratio. SN - 0021-9738 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/2200808/Effect_of_a_high_carbohydrate_low_saturated_fat_diet_on_apolipoprotein_B_and_triglyceride_metabolism_in_Pima_Indians_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI114756 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -