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Consumption of energy-dense diets in relation to cardiometabolic abnormalities among Iranian women.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess the association between dietary energy density and the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors among Iranian adult women.

DESIGN

Cross-sectional study.

SETTING

Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran.

SUBJECTS

We assessed habitual dietary intakes of 486 Iranian adult women by the use of a validated FFQ. Dietary energy density (DED) was calculated as each individual's reported daily energy intake (kJ/d, kcal/d) divided by the total weight of foods (excluding beverages) consumed (g/d). Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), lipid profiles and blood pressure were measured. Diabetes (FPG ≥ 126 mg/dl), dyslipidaemia (based on the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III) and hypertension (based on the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure) were determined. The presence of 'at least one risk factor' and 'at least two risk factors' of the three major risk factors for CVD (hypertension, dyslipidaemia and diabetes) was also evaluated. To explore the associations between DED and cardiometabolic risk factors, we obtained prevalence ratios in different models accounting for confounders.

RESULTS

Mean DED was 7.41 (sd 1.46) kJ/g (1.77 (sd 0.35) kcal/g). Consumption of energy-dense diets was associated with higher intakes of energy, dietary fat, cholesterol, vegetable oils, refined grains and high-fat dairy products, along with lower intakes of dietary carbohydrates, fruits, vegetables, and meat and fish. Adherence to an energy-dense diet was associated with elevated levels of serum TAG, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol and lower levels of serum HDL cholesterol. Women in the top quartile of DED were more likely to have dyslipidaemia (61 % v. 31 %, P < 0.05), at least one (68 % v. 35 %, P < 0.05) and at least two (29 % v. 10 %, P < 0.05) cardiometabolic risk factors compared with those in the bottom quartile. Consumption of energy-dense diets was significantly associated with a greater chance of having dyslipidaemia (prevalence ratio in top quartile v. bottom quartile: 1.78; 95 % CI 1.33, 2.58), at least one (1.81; 1.44, 2.49) and at least two cardiometabolic risk factors (2.81; 1.51, 5.24). Additional control for BMI and total energy intake slightly attenuated the associations. No overall significant associations were found between consumption of energy-dense diets and risk of having diabetes or hypertension either before or after adjustment for confounders.

CONCLUSIONS

Consumption of energy-dense diets was significantly related to the high prevalence of dyslipidaemia, at least one and at least two cardiometabolic risk factors among Iranian adult women. Prospective studies are required to confirm our findings.

Links

  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Food Security Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Islamic Republic of Iran. esmaillzadeh@hlth.mui.ac.ir

    ,

    Source

    Public health nutrition 15:5 2012 May pg 868-75

    MeSH

    Adult
    Cardiovascular Diseases
    Cross-Sectional Studies
    Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
    Diet
    Diet Surveys
    Dietary Carbohydrates
    Dietary Fats
    Dietary Proteins
    Dyslipidemias
    Energy Intake
    Female
    Health Surveys
    Humans
    Hypertension
    Iran
    Middle Aged
    Nutritive Value
    Prevalence
    Risk Factors

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    22008550

    Citation

    Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad, et al. "Consumption of Energy-dense Diets in Relation to Cardiometabolic Abnormalities Among Iranian Women." Public Health Nutrition, vol. 15, no. 5, 2012, pp. 868-75.
    Esmaillzadeh A, Boroujeni HK, Azadbakht L. Consumption of energy-dense diets in relation to cardiometabolic abnormalities among Iranian women. Public Health Nutr. 2012;15(5):868-75.
    Esmaillzadeh, A., Boroujeni, H. K., & Azadbakht, L. (2012). Consumption of energy-dense diets in relation to cardiometabolic abnormalities among Iranian women. Public Health Nutrition, 15(5), pp. 868-75. doi:10.1017/S1368980011002680.
    Esmaillzadeh A, Boroujeni HK, Azadbakht L. Consumption of Energy-dense Diets in Relation to Cardiometabolic Abnormalities Among Iranian Women. Public Health Nutr. 2012;15(5):868-75. PubMed PMID: 22008550.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Consumption of energy-dense diets in relation to cardiometabolic abnormalities among Iranian women. AU - Esmaillzadeh,Ahmad, AU - Boroujeni,Hossein Khosravi, AU - Azadbakht,Leila, Y1 - 2011/10/19/ PY - 2011/10/20/entrez PY - 2011/10/20/pubmed PY - 2012/5/12/medline SP - 868 EP - 75 JF - Public health nutrition JO - Public Health Nutr VL - 15 IS - 5 N2 - OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between dietary energy density and the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors among Iranian adult women. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran. SUBJECTS: We assessed habitual dietary intakes of 486 Iranian adult women by the use of a validated FFQ. Dietary energy density (DED) was calculated as each individual's reported daily energy intake (kJ/d, kcal/d) divided by the total weight of foods (excluding beverages) consumed (g/d). Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), lipid profiles and blood pressure were measured. Diabetes (FPG ≥ 126 mg/dl), dyslipidaemia (based on the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III) and hypertension (based on the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure) were determined. The presence of 'at least one risk factor' and 'at least two risk factors' of the three major risk factors for CVD (hypertension, dyslipidaemia and diabetes) was also evaluated. To explore the associations between DED and cardiometabolic risk factors, we obtained prevalence ratios in different models accounting for confounders. RESULTS: Mean DED was 7.41 (sd 1.46) kJ/g (1.77 (sd 0.35) kcal/g). Consumption of energy-dense diets was associated with higher intakes of energy, dietary fat, cholesterol, vegetable oils, refined grains and high-fat dairy products, along with lower intakes of dietary carbohydrates, fruits, vegetables, and meat and fish. Adherence to an energy-dense diet was associated with elevated levels of serum TAG, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol and lower levels of serum HDL cholesterol. Women in the top quartile of DED were more likely to have dyslipidaemia (61 % v. 31 %, P < 0.05), at least one (68 % v. 35 %, P < 0.05) and at least two (29 % v. 10 %, P < 0.05) cardiometabolic risk factors compared with those in the bottom quartile. Consumption of energy-dense diets was significantly associated with a greater chance of having dyslipidaemia (prevalence ratio in top quartile v. bottom quartile: 1.78; 95 % CI 1.33, 2.58), at least one (1.81; 1.44, 2.49) and at least two cardiometabolic risk factors (2.81; 1.51, 5.24). Additional control for BMI and total energy intake slightly attenuated the associations. No overall significant associations were found between consumption of energy-dense diets and risk of having diabetes or hypertension either before or after adjustment for confounders. CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of energy-dense diets was significantly related to the high prevalence of dyslipidaemia, at least one and at least two cardiometabolic risk factors among Iranian adult women. Prospective studies are required to confirm our findings. SN - 1475-2727 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22008550/Consumption_of_energy_dense_diets_in_relation_to_cardiometabolic_abnormalities_among_Iranian_women_ L2 - https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S1368980011002680/type/journal_article DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -