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Smoking status, the menopausal transition, and metabolic syndrome in women.
Menopause. 2012 Feb; 19(2):194-201.M

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Data on the relationship between tobacco use and metabolic risk among women with regard to their menopause status are scarce. This study assessed the prevalence of metabolic disorders in relation to smoking status in premenopausal and postmenopausal women.

METHODS

A cross-sectional analysis of 7,462 randomly selected women aged 20 to 74 years who are participating in the WOBASZ (Polish National Multicentre Health Survey) was carried out. Lifestyle and menopause status details were collected via an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Weight, height, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were measured by standard methods. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation criteria.

RESULTS

The prevalence of MetS was 3.3-fold higher among postmenopausal than premenopausal women. Regardless of menopause status, the prevalence of central obesity was significantly higher among never and past smokers versus current smokers (P < 0.001). Past smoking was associated with a significantly higher probability of elevated blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, and MetS (P < 0.05). However, premenopausal never and past smokers had a substantially lower prevalence of decreased HDL-C than did current smokers. Among postmenopausal nonsmoking women, high levels of leisure time and commuting physical activity were associated with a reduced likelihood of MetS (P < 0.01). Making an additional adjustment for calorie consumption did not substantially influence the results.

CONCLUSIONS

Except for HDL-C level, not smoking is associated with an unfavorable metabolic profile in women, regardless of menopause status. High level of physical activity may reduce the prevalence of MetS among never and past smokers after the menopausal transition.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Medical University of Łódź, Łódź, Poland. magdalena.kwasniewska@umed.lodz.plNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

22011755

Citation

Kwaśniewska, Magdalena, et al. "Smoking Status, the Menopausal Transition, and Metabolic Syndrome in Women." Menopause (New York, N.Y.), vol. 19, no. 2, 2012, pp. 194-201.
Kwaśniewska M, Pikala M, Kaczmarczyk-Chałas K, et al. Smoking status, the menopausal transition, and metabolic syndrome in women. Menopause. 2012;19(2):194-201.
Kwaśniewska, M., Pikala, M., Kaczmarczyk-Chałas, K., Piwonńska, A., Tykarski, A., Kozakiewicz, K., Pająk, A., Zdrojewski, T., & Drygas, W. (2012). Smoking status, the menopausal transition, and metabolic syndrome in women. Menopause (New York, N.Y.), 19(2), 194-201. https://doi.org/10.1097/gme.0b013e3182273035
Kwaśniewska M, et al. Smoking Status, the Menopausal Transition, and Metabolic Syndrome in Women. Menopause. 2012;19(2):194-201. PubMed PMID: 22011755.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Smoking status, the menopausal transition, and metabolic syndrome in women. AU - Kwaśniewska,Magdalena, AU - Pikala,Małgorzata, AU - Kaczmarczyk-Chałas,Krystyna, AU - Piwonńska,Aleksandra, AU - Tykarski,Andrzej, AU - Kozakiewicz,Krystyna, AU - Pająk,Andrzej, AU - Zdrojewski,Tomasz, AU - Drygas,Wojciech, PY - 2011/10/21/entrez PY - 2011/10/21/pubmed PY - 2012/5/15/medline SP - 194 EP - 201 JF - Menopause (New York, N.Y.) JO - Menopause VL - 19 IS - 2 N2 - OBJECTIVE: Data on the relationship between tobacco use and metabolic risk among women with regard to their menopause status are scarce. This study assessed the prevalence of metabolic disorders in relation to smoking status in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis of 7,462 randomly selected women aged 20 to 74 years who are participating in the WOBASZ (Polish National Multicentre Health Survey) was carried out. Lifestyle and menopause status details were collected via an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Weight, height, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were measured by standard methods. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation criteria. RESULTS: The prevalence of MetS was 3.3-fold higher among postmenopausal than premenopausal women. Regardless of menopause status, the prevalence of central obesity was significantly higher among never and past smokers versus current smokers (P < 0.001). Past smoking was associated with a significantly higher probability of elevated blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, and MetS (P < 0.05). However, premenopausal never and past smokers had a substantially lower prevalence of decreased HDL-C than did current smokers. Among postmenopausal nonsmoking women, high levels of leisure time and commuting physical activity were associated with a reduced likelihood of MetS (P < 0.01). Making an additional adjustment for calorie consumption did not substantially influence the results. CONCLUSIONS: Except for HDL-C level, not smoking is associated with an unfavorable metabolic profile in women, regardless of menopause status. High level of physical activity may reduce the prevalence of MetS among never and past smokers after the menopausal transition. SN - 1530-0374 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22011755/Smoking_status_the_menopausal_transition_and_metabolic_syndrome_in_women_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1097/gme.0b013e3182273035 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -