Food sources and correlates of sodium and potassium intakes in Flemish pre-school children.Public Health Nutr 2012; 15(6):1039-46PH
The aim of the present study was to investigate dietary sources of Na and K intakes among Flemish pre-school children using multiple linear regression analyses.
Three-day estimated diet records were used to assess dietary intakes. The contribution to Na and K intakes of fifty-seven food groups was computed by summing the amount provided by the food group for all individuals divided by the total intake for all individuals.
A random cluster sampling design at the level of schools, stratified by province and age, was used.
A representative sample of 696 Flemish pre-school children aged 2·5-6·5 years was recruited.
Mean Na intake was above and mean K intake was largely below the recommendation for children. Bread (22 %) and soup (13 %) were main contributors to Na intake followed by cold meat cuts and other meat products (12 % and 11 %, respectively). Sugared milk drinks, fried potatoes, milk and fruit juices were the main K sources (13 %, 12 %, 11 % and 11 %, respectively). Although Na and K intakes were positively correlated, several food categories showed Na:K intake ratio well above one (water, cheeses, soup, butter/margarine, fast foods and light beverages) whereas others presented a ratio well below one (oil & fat, fruits & juices, potatoes, vegetables and hot beverages).
Flemish pre-school children had too high Na and too low K intakes. The finding that main dietary sources of Na and K are clearly different indicates the feasibility of simultaneously decreasing Na and increasing K intake among children.