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Executive function deficits in preschool children with ADHD and DBD.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2012 Feb; 53(2):111-9.JC

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Impairments in executive functions (EF) are consistently associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to a lesser extent, with disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), that is, oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder, in school-aged children. Recently, larger numbers of children with these disorders are diagnosed earlier in development, yet knowledge about impairments in clinically diagnosed preschool children and the role of comorbidity is limited. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to examine EF in clinically referred preschool children with a clinical diagnosis of ADHD, DBD and ADHD + DBD.

METHOD

Participants were 202 children aged 3.5-5.5 years, 61 with ADHD only, 33 with DBD only, 52 with comorbid ADHD + DBD and 56 typically developing children. Five EF tasks were administered.

RESULTS

Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the two-factor model (inhibition and working memory) fit the data better than a one-factor model in this clinical sample. Preschoolers with ADHD displayed inhibition deficits, also after controlling for IQ. Likewise, preschoolers with DBD displayed impaired inhibition, but when IQ was controlled differences were carried mostly by the effect on the task where motivational demands were high (i.e. when tangible rewards were used). This pattern was also found in the interaction between ADHD and DBD; impaired inhibition in the comorbid group, however, was more severe than in the DBD group. Regarding working memory, few group differences were found.

CONCLUSIONS

Clinically diagnosed preschool children with ADHD showed robust inhibition deficits, whereas preschool children with DBD showed impaired inhibition especially where motivational incentives were prominent. Severity of inhibition impairment in the comorbid group was similar to the ADHD group.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Child and Adolescent Studies, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands. k.schoemaker@umcutrecht.nNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

22022931

Citation

Schoemaker, Kim, et al. "Executive Function Deficits in Preschool Children With ADHD and DBD." Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, vol. 53, no. 2, 2012, pp. 111-9.
Schoemaker K, Bunte T, Wiebe SA, et al. Executive function deficits in preschool children with ADHD and DBD. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2012;53(2):111-9.
Schoemaker, K., Bunte, T., Wiebe, S. A., Espy, K. A., Deković, M., & Matthys, W. (2012). Executive function deficits in preschool children with ADHD and DBD. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 53(2), 111-9. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2011.02468.x
Schoemaker K, et al. Executive Function Deficits in Preschool Children With ADHD and DBD. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2012;53(2):111-9. PubMed PMID: 22022931.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Executive function deficits in preschool children with ADHD and DBD. AU - Schoemaker,Kim, AU - Bunte,Tessa, AU - Wiebe,Sandra A, AU - Espy,Kimberly Andrews, AU - Deković,Maja, AU - Matthys,Walter, Y1 - 2011/10/25/ PY - 2011/10/26/entrez PY - 2011/10/26/pubmed PY - 2012/5/11/medline SP - 111 EP - 9 JF - Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines JO - J Child Psychol Psychiatry VL - 53 IS - 2 N2 - BACKGROUND: Impairments in executive functions (EF) are consistently associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to a lesser extent, with disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), that is, oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder, in school-aged children. Recently, larger numbers of children with these disorders are diagnosed earlier in development, yet knowledge about impairments in clinically diagnosed preschool children and the role of comorbidity is limited. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to examine EF in clinically referred preschool children with a clinical diagnosis of ADHD, DBD and ADHD + DBD. METHOD: Participants were 202 children aged 3.5-5.5 years, 61 with ADHD only, 33 with DBD only, 52 with comorbid ADHD + DBD and 56 typically developing children. Five EF tasks were administered. RESULTS: Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the two-factor model (inhibition and working memory) fit the data better than a one-factor model in this clinical sample. Preschoolers with ADHD displayed inhibition deficits, also after controlling for IQ. Likewise, preschoolers with DBD displayed impaired inhibition, but when IQ was controlled differences were carried mostly by the effect on the task where motivational demands were high (i.e. when tangible rewards were used). This pattern was also found in the interaction between ADHD and DBD; impaired inhibition in the comorbid group, however, was more severe than in the DBD group. Regarding working memory, few group differences were found. CONCLUSIONS: Clinically diagnosed preschool children with ADHD showed robust inhibition deficits, whereas preschool children with DBD showed impaired inhibition especially where motivational incentives were prominent. Severity of inhibition impairment in the comorbid group was similar to the ADHD group. SN - 1469-7610 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22022931/Executive_function_deficits_in_preschool_children_with_ADHD_and_DBD_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2011.02468.x DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -