Joint effect of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol on the risk of coronary heart disease.Eur J Prev Cardiol 2013; 20(1):89-97EJ
To evaluate the single and joint associations of serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol with coronary heart disease (CHD) risk.
Study cohorts included 21,375 Finnish participants who were 25-74 years of age and free of CHD and stroke at baseline.
During a median follow-up period of 10.8 years, 437 participants developed CHD. The sex- and multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of CHD at different levels of HDL cholesterol [<40 (reference), 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, and ≥ 70 mg/dL] were 1.00, 1.00, 0.74, 0.58, and 0.69 (p (trend) = 0.006), respectively. The sex- and multivariable-adjusted HRs of CHD at different levels of LDL cholesterol [<100 (reference), 100-129, 130-159, and ≥ 160 mg/dL] were 1.00, 1.25, 1.92, and 2.65 (p (trend) < 0.001), respectively. In joint analyses, a decreased trend in the incidence rate of CHD with an increasing HDL cholesterol level was consistent in people with any level of LDL cholesterol. Likewise, an increasing trend in incidence of CHD with an increase in the LDL cholesterol level was consistent in subjects with any level of HDL cholesterol.
These results suggest an inverse association between HDL cholesterol and CHD risk and a direct association between LDL cholesterol and CHD risk, independent of other risk factors. The protective effect of HDL cholesterol on CHD risk is observed at all levels of LDL cholesterol.