Lappaconitine-loaded microspheres for parenteral sustained release: effects of formulation variables and in vitro characterization.Pharmazie. 2011 Sep; 66(9):654-61.P
Lappaconitine instead of its hydrobromide salts has been encapsulated in poly (lactide-co-glycolide) acid (PLGA) microspheres by the simple o/w emulsion solvent evaporation technique. The effects of several variables including emulsifier (polyvinyl alcohol, PVA) concentration, stirring speed, PLGA concentration and drug/polymer mass ratios on quality of microspheres have been investigated. The particle size and size distribution can be controlled by PVA concentration, stirring speed and PLGA concentration. The entrapment efficiency and the burst release of lappaconitine from drug-loaded microspheres were dominantly affected by the drug/polymer mass ratio and PVA concentration. The best parameters of formulation were 1.5% PVA, the PLGA concentration of 50 g/L, and the stirring speed of 800 rpm and drug/polymer of 1:5. The optimized formulation has a mean particle size of 19.3 +/- 0.93 microm, mean entrapment efficiency of 70.77 +/- 3.23% and mean drug loading of 11.45 +/- 0.47%. Based on the optimized parameters of formulation, the effects of oil/aqueous solubility partition ratio of drug on entrapment efficiency of drug-loaded microspheres prepared by o/w emulsion solvent evaporation were further studied. A good linear relation existed between the partition ratio and entrapment efficiency. The optimized microspheres were characterized by SEM, FT-IR, DSC and XRD. SEM shows spherical and smooth surface and uniform size distribution. The results of DSC, FT-IR study reveal no interaction between drug and polymer. The results of the XRD study indicate lappaconitine trapped in microsphere exists in form of an amorphous or disordered crystalline status in polymer matrix. The in vitro release models were evaluated with two different groups of drug-loaded microspheres including microspheres washed with distilled water and 0.01N HCL, respectively. The drug release profile of lappaconitine-loaded microspheres washed with distilled water agreed with zero order equation and that of the latter better agreed with first order equation.