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hCG, five independent molecules.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION

The hCG amino acid sequence supports 5 glycoproteins. All are called hCG forms. This review examines all 5 molecules, the hormone as produced by the placental syncytiotrophoblast cells, the sulfated hormone produced by the pituitary gonadotrope cells, the hyperglycosylated hCG autocrine made by placental cytotrophoblast cells, and the autocrine cancer promoters hyperglycosylated hCG, hCGβ and hyperglycosylated hCGβ as made by all malignancies. This review examines all the molecules and multiple proven functions, ranging from evolution to cancer promotion to hormone action.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

hCG forms are critical super-growth factors in humans, with an exceptional wide range of functions.

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  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    USA hCG Reference Service Reference Service, Division of Women's Health Research, Albuquerque, NM 87104, United States. larry@hcglab.com

    Source

    MeSH

    Carbohydrate Sequence
    Chorionic Gonadotropin
    Female
    Glycosylation
    Humans
    Models, Molecular
    Molecular Sequence Data
    Pregnancy

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    22027338

    Citation

    TY - JOUR T1 - hCG, five independent molecules. A1 - Cole,Laurence A, Y1 - 2011/10/18/ PY - 2011/08/16/received PY - 2011/09/11/revised PY - 2011/09/26/accepted PY - 2011/10/27/entrez PY - 2011/10/27/pubmed PY - 2012/3/27/medline SP - 48 EP - 65 JF - Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry JO - Clin. Chim. Acta VL - 413 IS - 1-2 N2 - INTRODUCTION: The hCG amino acid sequence supports 5 glycoproteins. All are called hCG forms. This review examines all 5 molecules, the hormone as produced by the placental syncytiotrophoblast cells, the sulfated hormone produced by the pituitary gonadotrope cells, the hyperglycosylated hCG autocrine made by placental cytotrophoblast cells, and the autocrine cancer promoters hyperglycosylated hCG, hCGβ and hyperglycosylated hCGβ as made by all malignancies. This review examines all the molecules and multiple proven functions, ranging from evolution to cancer promotion to hormone action. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: hCG forms are critical super-growth factors in humans, with an exceptional wide range of functions. SN - 1873-3492 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22027338/abstract/hCG_five_independent_molecules_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0009-8981(11)00545-6 ER -