Evaluation of zinc, copper and iron in biological samples (scalp hair, blood and urine) of tuberculosis and diarrhea male human immunodeficiency virus patients.Clin Lab 2011; 57(9-10):677-88CL
The consequence of a deficiency in trace elements has been associated with an increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) disease progression and mortality. This study examined the association between low scalp hair and blood zinc, copper, and iron concentrations and opportunistic infections in hospitalized patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).
The study was performed on sixty two male HIV+ patients (HIV-1) from different cities in Pakistan. The patients were divided in two groups according to secondary infections (tuberculosis, diarrhea and high fever). The biological samples (scalp hair, blood, and urine) were collected from AIDS patients. For comparative study, 120 healthy subjects (males) of the same age group (31 - 45 years), socio-economic status, localities, and dietary habits were also included. The elements in the biological samples were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry prior to microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of the methodology was checked using certified reference materials (CRMs) and values obtained by conventional wet acid digestion method of the same CRMs.
The results indicated significantly lower levels of Fe and Zn and high levels of Cu in the biological samples (blood and scalp hair) of male HIV-1 patients compared with control subjects. It was observed that the low levels of zinc and iron may be predictors for secondary infections in HIV-1 patients. There was a significant decrease in mean values of Fe and Zn in whole blood and scalp hair samples of three groups of AIDS patients as compared to a control healthy male group (p < 0.001).
Deficiency of Zn and Fe might play a role in the development of AIDS in the subjects of this study.