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Consumption of cow's milk as a cause of iron deficiency in infants and toddlers.
Nutr Rev 2011; 69 Suppl 1:S37-42NR

Abstract

Consumption of cow's milk (CM) by infants and toddlers has adverse effects on their iron stores, a finding that has been well documented in many localities. Several mechanisms have been identified that may contribute to iron deficiency in this young population group. The most important of these is probably the low iron content of CM, which makes it difficult for infants to obtain the amounts of iron needed for growth. A second mechanism is the occult intestinal blood loss associated with CM consumption during infancy, a condition that affects about 40% of otherwise healthy infants. Loss of iron in the form of blood diminishes with age and ceases after the age of 1 year. A third mechanism is the inhibition of non-heme iron absorption by calcium and casein, both of which are present in high amounts in CM. Fortification of CM with iron, as practiced in some countries, can protect infants and toddlers against CM's negative effects on iron status. Consumption of CM produces a high renal solute load, which leads to a higher urine solute concentration than consumption of breast milk or formula, thereby narrowing the margin of safety during dehydrating events, such as diarrhea. The high protein intake from CM may also place infants at increased risk of obesity in later childhood. It is thus recommended that unmodified, unfortified CM not be fed to infants and that it be fed to toddlers in modest amounts only.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Fomon Infant Nutrition Unit, Department of Pediatrics, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, USA. ekhard-ziegler@uiowa.edu

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

22043881

Citation

Ziegler, Ekhard E.. "Consumption of Cow's Milk as a Cause of Iron Deficiency in Infants and Toddlers." Nutrition Reviews, vol. 69 Suppl 1, 2011, pp. S37-42.
Ziegler EE. Consumption of cow's milk as a cause of iron deficiency in infants and toddlers. Nutr Rev. 2011;69 Suppl 1:S37-42.
Ziegler, E. E. (2011). Consumption of cow's milk as a cause of iron deficiency in infants and toddlers. Nutrition Reviews, 69 Suppl 1, pp. S37-42. doi:10.1111/j.1753-4887.2011.00431.x.
Ziegler EE. Consumption of Cow's Milk as a Cause of Iron Deficiency in Infants and Toddlers. Nutr Rev. 2011;69 Suppl 1:S37-42. PubMed PMID: 22043881.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Consumption of cow's milk as a cause of iron deficiency in infants and toddlers. A1 - Ziegler,Ekhard E, PY - 2011/11/3/entrez PY - 2011/11/9/pubmed PY - 2012/3/1/medline SP - S37 EP - 42 JF - Nutrition reviews JO - Nutr. Rev. VL - 69 Suppl 1 N2 - Consumption of cow's milk (CM) by infants and toddlers has adverse effects on their iron stores, a finding that has been well documented in many localities. Several mechanisms have been identified that may contribute to iron deficiency in this young population group. The most important of these is probably the low iron content of CM, which makes it difficult for infants to obtain the amounts of iron needed for growth. A second mechanism is the occult intestinal blood loss associated with CM consumption during infancy, a condition that affects about 40% of otherwise healthy infants. Loss of iron in the form of blood diminishes with age and ceases after the age of 1 year. A third mechanism is the inhibition of non-heme iron absorption by calcium and casein, both of which are present in high amounts in CM. Fortification of CM with iron, as practiced in some countries, can protect infants and toddlers against CM's negative effects on iron status. Consumption of CM produces a high renal solute load, which leads to a higher urine solute concentration than consumption of breast milk or formula, thereby narrowing the margin of safety during dehydrating events, such as diarrhea. The high protein intake from CM may also place infants at increased risk of obesity in later childhood. It is thus recommended that unmodified, unfortified CM not be fed to infants and that it be fed to toddlers in modest amounts only. SN - 1753-4887 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22043881/full_citation L2 - https://academic.oup.com/nutritionreviews/article-lookup/doi/10.1111/j.1753-4887.2011.00431.x DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -