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Comparative genomic analysis of human fungal pathogens causing paracoccidioidomycosis.
PLoS Genet. 2011 Oct; 7(10):e1002345.PG

Abstract

Paracoccidioides is a fungal pathogen and the cause of paracoccidioidomycosis, a health-threatening human systemic mycosis endemic to Latin America. Infection by Paracoccidioides, a dimorphic fungus in the order Onygenales, is coupled with a thermally regulated transition from a soil-dwelling filamentous form to a yeast-like pathogenic form. To better understand the genetic basis of growth and pathogenicity in Paracoccidioides, we sequenced the genomes of two strains of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb03 and Pb18) and one strain of Paracoccidioides lutzii (Pb01). These genomes range in size from 29.1 Mb to 32.9 Mb and encode 7,610 to 8,130 genes. To enable genetic studies, we mapped 94% of the P. brasiliensis Pb18 assembly onto five chromosomes. We characterized gene family content across Onygenales and related fungi, and within Paracoccidioides we found expansions of the fungal-specific kinase family FunK1. Additionally, the Onygenales have lost many genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and fewer genes involved in protein metabolism, resulting in a higher ratio of proteases to carbohydrate active enzymes in the Onygenales than their relatives. To determine if gene content correlated with growth on different substrates, we screened the non-pathogenic onygenale Uncinocarpus reesii, which has orthologs for 91% of Paracoccidioides metabolic genes, for growth on 190 carbon sources. U. reesii showed growth on a limited range of carbohydrates, primarily basic plant sugars and cell wall components; this suggests that Onygenales, including dimorphic fungi, can degrade cellulosic plant material in the soil. In addition, U. reesii grew on gelatin and a wide range of dipeptides and amino acids, indicating a preference for proteinaceous growth substrates over carbohydrates, which may enable these fungi to also degrade animal biomass. These capabilities for degrading plant and animal substrates suggest a duality in lifestyle that could enable pathogenic species of Onygenales to transfer from soil to animal hosts.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

22046142

Citation

Desjardins, Christopher A., et al. "Comparative Genomic Analysis of Human Fungal Pathogens Causing Paracoccidioidomycosis." PLoS Genetics, vol. 7, no. 10, 2011, pp. e1002345.
Desjardins CA, Champion MD, Holder JW, et al. Comparative genomic analysis of human fungal pathogens causing paracoccidioidomycosis. PLoS Genet. 2011;7(10):e1002345.
Desjardins, C. A., Champion, M. D., Holder, J. W., Muszewska, A., Goldberg, J., Bailão, A. M., Brigido, M. M., Ferreira, M. E., Garcia, A. M., Grynberg, M., Gujja, S., Heiman, D. I., Henn, M. R., Kodira, C. D., León-Narváez, H., Longo, L. V., Ma, L. J., Malavazi, I., Matsuo, A. L., ... Cuomo, C. A. (2011). Comparative genomic analysis of human fungal pathogens causing paracoccidioidomycosis. PLoS Genetics, 7(10), e1002345. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002345
Desjardins CA, et al. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Human Fungal Pathogens Causing Paracoccidioidomycosis. PLoS Genet. 2011;7(10):e1002345. PubMed PMID: 22046142.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Comparative genomic analysis of human fungal pathogens causing paracoccidioidomycosis. AU - Desjardins,Christopher A, AU - Champion,Mia D, AU - Holder,Jason W, AU - Muszewska,Anna, AU - Goldberg,Jonathan, AU - Bailão,Alexandre M, AU - Brigido,Marcelo Macedo, AU - Ferreira,Márcia Eliana da Silva, AU - Garcia,Ana Maria, AU - Grynberg,Marcin, AU - Gujja,Sharvari, AU - Heiman,David I, AU - Henn,Matthew R, AU - Kodira,Chinnappa D, AU - León-Narváez,Henry, AU - Longo,Larissa V G, AU - Ma,Li-Jun, AU - Malavazi,Iran, AU - Matsuo,Alisson L, AU - Morais,Flavia V, AU - Pereira,Maristela, AU - Rodríguez-Brito,Sabrina, AU - Sakthikumar,Sharadha, AU - Salem-Izacc,Silvia M, AU - Sykes,Sean M, AU - Teixeira,Marcus Melo, AU - Vallejo,Milene C, AU - Walter,Maria Emília Machado Telles, AU - Yandava,Chandri, AU - Young,Sarah, AU - Zeng,Qiandong, AU - Zucker,Jeremy, AU - Felipe,Maria Sueli, AU - Goldman,Gustavo H, AU - Haas,Brian J, AU - McEwen,Juan G, AU - Nino-Vega,Gustavo, AU - Puccia,Rosana, AU - San-Blas,Gioconda, AU - Soares,Celia Maria de Almeida, AU - Birren,Bruce W, AU - Cuomo,Christina A, Y1 - 2011/10/27/ PY - 2011/04/19/received PY - 2011/08/30/accepted PY - 2011/11/3/entrez PY - 2011/11/3/pubmed PY - 2012/2/16/medline SP - e1002345 EP - e1002345 JF - PLoS genetics JO - PLoS Genet. VL - 7 IS - 10 N2 - Paracoccidioides is a fungal pathogen and the cause of paracoccidioidomycosis, a health-threatening human systemic mycosis endemic to Latin America. Infection by Paracoccidioides, a dimorphic fungus in the order Onygenales, is coupled with a thermally regulated transition from a soil-dwelling filamentous form to a yeast-like pathogenic form. To better understand the genetic basis of growth and pathogenicity in Paracoccidioides, we sequenced the genomes of two strains of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb03 and Pb18) and one strain of Paracoccidioides lutzii (Pb01). These genomes range in size from 29.1 Mb to 32.9 Mb and encode 7,610 to 8,130 genes. To enable genetic studies, we mapped 94% of the P. brasiliensis Pb18 assembly onto five chromosomes. We characterized gene family content across Onygenales and related fungi, and within Paracoccidioides we found expansions of the fungal-specific kinase family FunK1. Additionally, the Onygenales have lost many genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and fewer genes involved in protein metabolism, resulting in a higher ratio of proteases to carbohydrate active enzymes in the Onygenales than their relatives. To determine if gene content correlated with growth on different substrates, we screened the non-pathogenic onygenale Uncinocarpus reesii, which has orthologs for 91% of Paracoccidioides metabolic genes, for growth on 190 carbon sources. U. reesii showed growth on a limited range of carbohydrates, primarily basic plant sugars and cell wall components; this suggests that Onygenales, including dimorphic fungi, can degrade cellulosic plant material in the soil. In addition, U. reesii grew on gelatin and a wide range of dipeptides and amino acids, indicating a preference for proteinaceous growth substrates over carbohydrates, which may enable these fungi to also degrade animal biomass. These capabilities for degrading plant and animal substrates suggest a duality in lifestyle that could enable pathogenic species of Onygenales to transfer from soil to animal hosts. SN - 1553-7404 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22046142/Comparative_genomic_analysis_of_human_fungal_pathogens_causing_paracoccidioidomycosis_ L2 - http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002345 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -