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Reference values for the genitalia of male dromedary before and after puberty using caliper and ultrasonography in subtropics.
The aim of the present study was to characterize the dynamic changes of the testes and the pelvic genitalia in vivo in male dromedary. Eighty-one clinically healthy male dromedaries aged 1.5 to 12 years were assigned for the present study. Testicular length, breadth, and depth as well as epididymal head and tail were measured using caliper and ultrasonography. The pelvic genitalia, including bulbourethral gland, prostate, and pelvic urethra were examined using ultrasonography. The results revealed that the three dimensions of the testes and epididymal tail and head showed significant increase with age (P < 0.01). Concerning the epididymal measurements, differences between the pre- and peri-pubertal groups were not significant. Left testes tended to be larger than the right (not statistically significant) although only the breadth of the left testes in the prepubertal group was significantly larger (P < 0.05). The volume of both testes correlated positively with the age (r(2) = 0.91 for left and 1.00 for the right, P < 0.01). There were no significant correlations between the values measured using caliper and those by ultrasonography between groups, but the correlation was highly significant (P < 0.01) for the total number of the examined animals. There were significant and steady increases of the size of bulbourethral gland in all examined groups (P < 0.01). Pars disseminata of the prostate gland and pelvic urethra were significantly higher in sexually mature compared with prepubertal groups (P < 0.01). It was concluded that ultrasonography is a useful tool in studying the developmental changes of the testes and accessory glands of the male dromedary. The obtained data could provide a reference values for predicting camel puberty and future fertility.
Pub Type(s)Journal Article