Molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction for the selective HPLC determination of ractopamine in pig urine.J Sep Sci. 2011 Dec; 34(23):3399-409.JS
A method was developed for the determination of ractopamine in pig urine using molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) as the sample clean-up technique combined with high-performance liquid chromatography. The molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was synthesized in acetonitrile-triethylamine system using ractopamine (RAC) as the template and acrylamide as the monomer. The binding capacity of the polymer toward RAC was found to be about 2.57 mg of ractopamine/g of polymer. The optimal procedures for MISPE consisted of conditioning with 3 mL methanol, equilibrating with 3 mL of water, loading volume of <10 mL of aqueous sample (pH 7), washing with 3 mL water and 3 mL methanol, and eluting with 5 mL of 5% ammonia in methanol. In the four spiked samples with the levels of 0.01, 0.1, 1.0 and 5.0 μg/mL, the mean recoveries of analyte on the MIP were higher than 90% with relative standard deviation <10%, and significant differences between imprinted and non-imprinted materials were observed. The MIP selectivity was evaluated by checking 11 drugs with similar and different molecular structures to that of RAC. The characteristics of three-dimensional cavities and hydrogen bond interaction were regarded as the main factors that dominated the retention of RAC on the MISPE cartridge.