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Effects of low sodium diet versus high sodium diet on blood pressure, renin, aldosterone, catecholamines, cholesterol, and triglyceride.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

In spite of more than 100 years of investigations the question of reduced sodium intake as a health prophylaxis initiative is still unsolved.

OBJECTIVES

To estimate the effects of low sodium versus high sodium intake on systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), plasma or serum levels of renin, aldosterone, catecholamines, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglycerides.

SEARCH METHODS

PUBMED, EMBASE and Cochrane Central and reference lists of relevant articles were searched from 1950 to July 2011.

SELECTION CRITERIA

Studies randomizing persons to low sodium and high sodium diets were included if they evaluated at least one of the above outcome parameters.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS

Two authors independently collected data, which were analysed with Review Manager 5.1.

MAIN RESULTS

A total of 167 studies were included in this 2011 update.The effect of sodium reduction in normotensive Caucasians was SBP -1.27 mmHg (95% CI: -1.88, -0.66; p=0.0001), DBP -0.05 mmHg (95% CI: -0.51, 0.42; p=0.85). The effect of sodium reduction in normotensive Blacks was SBP -4.02 mmHg (95% CI:-7.37, -0.68; p=0.002), DBP -2.01 mmHg (95% CI:-4.37, 0.35; p=0.09). The effect of sodium reduction in normotensive Asians was SBP -1.27 mmHg (95% CI: -3.07, 0.54; p=0.17), DBP -1.68 mmHg (95% CI:-3.29, -0.06; p=0.04). The effect of sodium reduction in hypertensive Caucasians was SBP -5.48 mmHg (95% CI: -6.53, -4.43; p<0.00001), DBP -2.75 mmHg (95% CI: -3.34, -2.17; p<0.00001). The effect of sodium reduction in hypertensive Blacks was SBP -6.44 mmHg (95% CI:-8.85, -4.03; p=0.00001), DBP -2.40 mmHg (95% CI:-4.68, -0.12; p=0.04). The effect of sodium reduction in hypertensive Asians was SBP -10.21 mmHg (95% CI:-16.98, -3.44; p=0.003), DBP -2.60 mmHg (95% CI: -4.03, -1.16; p=0.0004).In plasma or serum there was a significant increase in renin (p<0.00001), aldosterone (p<0.00001), noradrenaline (p<0.00001), adrenaline (p<0.0002), cholesterol (p<0.001) and triglyceride (p<0.0008) with low sodium intake as compared with high sodium intake. In general the results were similar in studies with a duration of at least 2 weeks.

AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS

Sodium reduction resulted in a 1% decrease in blood pressure in normotensives, a 3.5% decrease in hypertensives, a significant increase in plasma renin, plasma aldosterone, plasma adrenaline and plasma noradrenaline, a 2.5% increase in cholesterol, and a 7% increase in triglyceride. In general, these effects were stable in studies lasting for 2 weeks or more.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Rheumatology TA4242/Internal Medicine, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark. graudal@dadlnet.dk.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Meta-Analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review
Systematic Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

22071811

Citation

Graudal, Niels Albert, et al. "Effects of Low Sodium Diet Versus High Sodium Diet On Blood Pressure, Renin, Aldosterone, Catecholamines, Cholesterol, and Triglyceride." The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2011, p. CD004022.
Graudal NA, Hubeck-Graudal T, Jurgens G. Effects of low sodium diet versus high sodium diet on blood pressure, renin, aldosterone, catecholamines, cholesterol, and triglyceride. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011.
Graudal, N. A., Hubeck-Graudal, T., & Jurgens, G. (2011). Effects of low sodium diet versus high sodium diet on blood pressure, renin, aldosterone, catecholamines, cholesterol, and triglyceride. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (11), CD004022. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD004022.pub3
Graudal NA, Hubeck-Graudal T, Jurgens G. Effects of Low Sodium Diet Versus High Sodium Diet On Blood Pressure, Renin, Aldosterone, Catecholamines, Cholesterol, and Triglyceride. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Nov 9;(11)CD004022. PubMed PMID: 22071811.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Effects of low sodium diet versus high sodium diet on blood pressure, renin, aldosterone, catecholamines, cholesterol, and triglyceride. AU - Graudal,Niels Albert, AU - Hubeck-Graudal,Thorbjorn, AU - Jurgens,Gesche, Y1 - 2011/11/09/ PY - 2011/11/11/entrez PY - 2011/11/11/pubmed PY - 2012/5/12/medline SP - CD004022 EP - CD004022 JF - The Cochrane database of systematic reviews JO - Cochrane Database Syst Rev IS - 11 N2 - BACKGROUND: In spite of more than 100 years of investigations the question of reduced sodium intake as a health prophylaxis initiative is still unsolved. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the effects of low sodium versus high sodium intake on systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), plasma or serum levels of renin, aldosterone, catecholamines, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglycerides. SEARCH METHODS: PUBMED, EMBASE and Cochrane Central and reference lists of relevant articles were searched from 1950 to July 2011. SELECTION CRITERIA: Studies randomizing persons to low sodium and high sodium diets were included if they evaluated at least one of the above outcome parameters. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently collected data, which were analysed with Review Manager 5.1. MAIN RESULTS: A total of 167 studies were included in this 2011 update.The effect of sodium reduction in normotensive Caucasians was SBP -1.27 mmHg (95% CI: -1.88, -0.66; p=0.0001), DBP -0.05 mmHg (95% CI: -0.51, 0.42; p=0.85). The effect of sodium reduction in normotensive Blacks was SBP -4.02 mmHg (95% CI:-7.37, -0.68; p=0.002), DBP -2.01 mmHg (95% CI:-4.37, 0.35; p=0.09). The effect of sodium reduction in normotensive Asians was SBP -1.27 mmHg (95% CI: -3.07, 0.54; p=0.17), DBP -1.68 mmHg (95% CI:-3.29, -0.06; p=0.04). The effect of sodium reduction in hypertensive Caucasians was SBP -5.48 mmHg (95% CI: -6.53, -4.43; p<0.00001), DBP -2.75 mmHg (95% CI: -3.34, -2.17; p<0.00001). The effect of sodium reduction in hypertensive Blacks was SBP -6.44 mmHg (95% CI:-8.85, -4.03; p=0.00001), DBP -2.40 mmHg (95% CI:-4.68, -0.12; p=0.04). The effect of sodium reduction in hypertensive Asians was SBP -10.21 mmHg (95% CI:-16.98, -3.44; p=0.003), DBP -2.60 mmHg (95% CI: -4.03, -1.16; p=0.0004).In plasma or serum there was a significant increase in renin (p<0.00001), aldosterone (p<0.00001), noradrenaline (p<0.00001), adrenaline (p<0.0002), cholesterol (p<0.001) and triglyceride (p<0.0008) with low sodium intake as compared with high sodium intake. In general the results were similar in studies with a duration of at least 2 weeks. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Sodium reduction resulted in a 1% decrease in blood pressure in normotensives, a 3.5% decrease in hypertensives, a significant increase in plasma renin, plasma aldosterone, plasma adrenaline and plasma noradrenaline, a 2.5% increase in cholesterol, and a 7% increase in triglyceride. In general, these effects were stable in studies lasting for 2 weeks or more. SN - 1469-493X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22071811/Effects_of_low_sodium_diet_versus_high_sodium_diet_on_blood_pressure_renin_aldosterone_catecholamines_cholesterol_and_triglyceride_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD004022.pub3 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -