Alkamides activate jasmonic acid biosynthesis and signaling pathways and confer resistance to Botrytis cinerea in Arabidopsis thaliana.PLoS One. 2011; 6(11):e27251.Plos
Alkamides are fatty acid amides of wide distribution in plants, structurally related to N-acyl-L-homoserine lactones (AHLs) from Gram-negative bacteria and to N- acylethanolamines (NAEs) from plants and mammals. Global analysis of gene expression changes in Arabidopsis thaliana in response to N-isobutyl decanamide, the most highly active alkamide identified to date, revealed an overrepresentation of defense-responsive transcriptional networks. In particular, genes encoding enzymes for jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis increased their expression, which occurred in parallel with JA, nitric oxide (NO) and H₂O₂ accumulation. The activity of the alkamide to confer resistance against the necrotizing fungus Botrytis cinerea was tested by inoculating Arabidopsis detached leaves with conidiospores and evaluating disease symptoms and fungal proliferation. N-isobutyl decanamide application significantly reduced necrosis caused by the pathogen and inhibited fungal proliferation. Arabidopsis mutants jar1 and coi1 altered in JA signaling and a MAP kinase mutant (mpk6), unlike salicylic acid- (SA) related mutant eds16/sid2-1, were unable to defend from fungal attack even when N-isobutyl decanamide was supplied, indicating that alkamides could modulate some necrotrophic-associated defense responses through JA-dependent and MPK6-regulated signaling pathways. Our results suggest a role of alkamides in plant immunity induction.