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Job strain in relation to body mass index: pooled analysis of 160 000 adults from 13 cohort studies.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Evidence of an association between job strain and obesity is inconsistent, mostly limited to small-scale studies, and does not distinguish between categories of underweight or obesity subclasses.

OBJECTIVES

To examine the association between job strain and body mass index (BMI) in a large adult population.

METHODS

We performed a pooled cross-sectional analysis based on individual-level data from 13 European studies resulting in a total of 161 746 participants (49% men, mean age, 43.7 years). Longitudinal analysis with a median follow-up of 4 years was possible for four cohort studies (n = 42 222).

RESULTS

A total of 86 429 participants were of normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg m(-2) ), 2149 were underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg m(-2) ), 56 572 overweight (BMI 25.0-29.9 kg m(-2) ) and 13 523 class I (BMI 30-34.9 kg m(-2) ) and 3073 classes II/III (BMI ≥ 35 kg m(-2) ) obese. In addition, 27 010 (17%) participants reported job strain. In cross-sectional analyses, we found increased odds of job strain amongst underweight [odds ratio 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00-1.25], obese class I (odds ratio 1.07, 95% CI 1.02-1.12) and obese classes II/III participants (odds ratio 1.14, 95% CI 1.01-1.28) as compared with participants of normal weight. In longitudinal analysis, both weight gain and weight loss were related to the onset of job strain during follow-up.

CONCLUSIONS

In an analysis of European data, we found both weight gain and weight loss to be associated with the onset of job strain, consistent with a 'U'-shaped cross-sectional association between job strain and BMI. These associations were relatively modest; therefore, it is unlikely that intervention to reduce job strain would be effective in combating obesity at a population level.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.solja.nyberg@ttl.fi

    , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

    Source

    Journal of internal medicine 272:1 2012 Jul pg 65-73

    MeSH

    Adolescent
    Adult
    Aged
    Aged, 80 and over
    Body Mass Index
    Cohort Studies
    Cross-Sectional Studies
    Employment
    Europe
    Female
    Humans
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Obesity
    Odds Ratio
    Overweight
    Stress, Psychological
    Weight Gain

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Meta-Analysis
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    22077620

    Citation

    Nyberg, S T., et al. "Job Strain in Relation to Body Mass Index: Pooled Analysis of 160 000 Adults From 13 Cohort Studies." Journal of Internal Medicine, vol. 272, no. 1, 2012, pp. 65-73.
    Nyberg ST, Heikkilä K, Fransson EI, et al. Job strain in relation to body mass index: pooled analysis of 160 000 adults from 13 cohort studies. J Intern Med. 2012;272(1):65-73.
    Nyberg, S. T., Heikkilä, K., Fransson, E. I., Alfredsson, L., De Bacquer, D., Bjorner, J. B., ... Kivimäki, M. (2012). Job strain in relation to body mass index: pooled analysis of 160 000 adults from 13 cohort studies. Journal of Internal Medicine, 272(1), pp. 65-73. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2796.2011.02482.x.
    Nyberg ST, et al. Job Strain in Relation to Body Mass Index: Pooled Analysis of 160 000 Adults From 13 Cohort Studies. J Intern Med. 2012;272(1):65-73. PubMed PMID: 22077620.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Job strain in relation to body mass index: pooled analysis of 160 000 adults from 13 cohort studies. AU - Nyberg,S T, AU - Heikkilä,K, AU - Fransson,E I, AU - Alfredsson,L, AU - De Bacquer,D, AU - Bjorner,J B, AU - Bonenfant,S, AU - Borritz,M, AU - Burr,H, AU - Casini,A, AU - Clays,E, AU - Dragano,N, AU - Erbel,R, AU - Geuskens,G A, AU - Goldberg,M, AU - Hooftman,W E, AU - Houtman,I L, AU - Jöckel,K-H, AU - Kittel,F, AU - Knutsson,A, AU - Koskenvuo,M, AU - Leineweber,C, AU - Lunau,T, AU - Madsen,I E H, AU - Hanson,L L Magnusson, AU - Marmot,M G, AU - Nielsen,M L, AU - Nordin,M, AU - Oksanen,T, AU - Pentti,J, AU - Rugulies,R, AU - Siegrist,J, AU - Suominen,S, AU - Vahtera,J, AU - Virtanen,M, AU - Westerholm,P, AU - Westerlund,H, AU - Zins,M, AU - Ferrie,J E, AU - Theorell,T, AU - Steptoe,A, AU - Hamer,M, AU - Singh-Manoux,A, AU - Batty,G D, AU - Kivimäki,M, AU - ,, Y1 - 2011/12/05/ PY - 2011/11/15/entrez PY - 2011/11/15/pubmed PY - 2012/8/25/medline SP - 65 EP - 73 JF - Journal of internal medicine JO - J. Intern. Med. VL - 272 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: Evidence of an association between job strain and obesity is inconsistent, mostly limited to small-scale studies, and does not distinguish between categories of underweight or obesity subclasses. OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between job strain and body mass index (BMI) in a large adult population. METHODS: We performed a pooled cross-sectional analysis based on individual-level data from 13 European studies resulting in a total of 161 746 participants (49% men, mean age, 43.7 years). Longitudinal analysis with a median follow-up of 4 years was possible for four cohort studies (n = 42 222). RESULTS: A total of 86 429 participants were of normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg m(-2) ), 2149 were underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg m(-2) ), 56 572 overweight (BMI 25.0-29.9 kg m(-2) ) and 13 523 class I (BMI 30-34.9 kg m(-2) ) and 3073 classes II/III (BMI ≥ 35 kg m(-2) ) obese. In addition, 27 010 (17%) participants reported job strain. In cross-sectional analyses, we found increased odds of job strain amongst underweight [odds ratio 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00-1.25], obese class I (odds ratio 1.07, 95% CI 1.02-1.12) and obese classes II/III participants (odds ratio 1.14, 95% CI 1.01-1.28) as compared with participants of normal weight. In longitudinal analysis, both weight gain and weight loss were related to the onset of job strain during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of European data, we found both weight gain and weight loss to be associated with the onset of job strain, consistent with a 'U'-shaped cross-sectional association between job strain and BMI. These associations were relatively modest; therefore, it is unlikely that intervention to reduce job strain would be effective in combating obesity at a population level. SN - 1365-2796 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22077620/Job_strain_in_relation_to_body_mass_index:_pooled_analysis_of_160_000_adults_from_13_cohort_studies_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2796.2011.02482.x DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -