Determination of quinine in beverages by online coupling capillary isotachophoresis to capillary zone electrophoresis with UV spectrophotometric detection.J Sep Sci. 2011 Dec; 34(23):3392-8.JS
The present study illustrates the possibilities of capillary isotachophoresis (CITP) online coupled with capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and hyphenated with fiber-based spectrophotometric diode array detection (DAD) for the direct, highly reliable, and ultrasensitive determination of quinine (QUI) in real multicomponent ionic matrices (beverages). Here, the CITP provided an effective online sample pretreatment (preseparation and preconcentration) prior to the CZE separation. Due to the CITP sample preconcentration, a simple UV-visible absorbance spectrophotometric detection was sufficient for obtaining very low concentration limits of detection (~2.3 ng/mL). Enhanced separation selectivity due to the combination of different separation mechanisms (CITP vs. CZE) enabled to obtain a pure analyte zone, suitable for its detection and quantitation in the directly injected real samples. The spectrophotometric DAD, unlike single wavelength UV detection, enabled to characterize the purity (i.e. spectral homogeneity) of the analyte zone and preliminary data indicate structurally related compounds via characteristic spectra recorded in the interval of 200-600 nm. The proposed CITP-CZE-DAD method was characterized by favorable performance parameters (sensitivity, linearity, precision, recovery, accuracy, robustness, and selectivity) and successfully applied to the control of QUI and potential QUI impurities in commercial beverages. This method is proposed as a routine automatized method for the highly reliable quality food control.