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The nursing hypothesis: an evolutionary account of emotional modulation of the postauricular reflex.
Psychophysiology. 2012 Feb; 49(2):178-85.P

Abstract

The postauricular reflex (PAR) is anomalous because it seems to be potentiated during positive emotions and inhibited during negative states, unlike eyeblink and other components of the startle reflex. Two evolutionary explanations based on simian facial emotion expressions were tested. Reflexes were elicited while 47 young adult volunteers made lip pursing or grimacing poses and viewed neutral, intimidating, or appetitive photos. The PAR was enhanced during appetitive slides, but only as subjects carried out the lip-pursing maneuver. These results support the nursing hypothesis, which assumes that infant mammals instinctively retract their pinnae while nursing in order to comfortably position the head. Appetitive emotions prime the ear-retraction musculature, even in higher primates whose postauricular muscles are vestigial.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Psychological Sciences, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, Missouri 65211, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

22092017

Citation

Johnson, Gabriella M., et al. "The Nursing Hypothesis: an Evolutionary Account of Emotional Modulation of the Postauricular Reflex." Psychophysiology, vol. 49, no. 2, 2012, pp. 178-85.
Johnson GM, Valle-Inclán F, Geary DC, et al. The nursing hypothesis: an evolutionary account of emotional modulation of the postauricular reflex. Psychophysiology. 2012;49(2):178-85.
Johnson, G. M., Valle-Inclán, F., Geary, D. C., & Hackley, S. A. (2012). The nursing hypothesis: an evolutionary account of emotional modulation of the postauricular reflex. Psychophysiology, 49(2), 178-85. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8986.2011.01297.x
Johnson GM, et al. The Nursing Hypothesis: an Evolutionary Account of Emotional Modulation of the Postauricular Reflex. Psychophysiology. 2012;49(2):178-85. PubMed PMID: 22092017.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The nursing hypothesis: an evolutionary account of emotional modulation of the postauricular reflex. AU - Johnson,Gabriella M, AU - Valle-Inclán,Fernando, AU - Geary,David C, AU - Hackley,Steven A, Y1 - 2011/10/06/ PY - 2011/01/18/received PY - 2011/08/01/accepted PY - 2011/11/19/entrez PY - 2011/11/19/pubmed PY - 2012/5/11/medline SP - 178 EP - 85 JF - Psychophysiology JO - Psychophysiology VL - 49 IS - 2 N2 - The postauricular reflex (PAR) is anomalous because it seems to be potentiated during positive emotions and inhibited during negative states, unlike eyeblink and other components of the startle reflex. Two evolutionary explanations based on simian facial emotion expressions were tested. Reflexes were elicited while 47 young adult volunteers made lip pursing or grimacing poses and viewed neutral, intimidating, or appetitive photos. The PAR was enhanced during appetitive slides, but only as subjects carried out the lip-pursing maneuver. These results support the nursing hypothesis, which assumes that infant mammals instinctively retract their pinnae while nursing in order to comfortably position the head. Appetitive emotions prime the ear-retraction musculature, even in higher primates whose postauricular muscles are vestigial. SN - 1540-5958 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22092017/The_nursing_hypothesis:_an_evolutionary_account_of_emotional_modulation_of_the_postauricular_reflex_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8986.2011.01297.x DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -