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The longitudinal course of PTSD among disaster workers deployed to the World Trade Center following the attacks of September 11th.
J Trauma Stress. 2011 Oct; 24(5):506-14.JT

Abstract

This study examined the long-term mental health outcomes of 2,960 nonrescue disaster workers deployed to the World Trade Center site in New York City following the September 11, 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks. Semistructured interviews and standardized self-report measures were used to assess the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other psychopathology 4 and 6 years after the attacks. Clinician-measured rates of PTSD and partial PTSD 4-years posttrauma were 8.4% and 8.9%, respectively, in a subsample of 727 individuals. Rates decreased to 5.8% and 7.7% for full and partial PTSD 6 years posttrauma. For the larger sample, self-report scores revealed probable PTSD and partial PTSD prevalence to be 4.8% and 3.6% at 4 years, and 2.4% and 1.8% at 6 years. Approximately 70% of workers never met criteria for PTSD. Although PTSD rates decreased significantly over time, many workers remained symptomatic, with others showing delayed-onset PTSD. The strongest predictors of ongoing PTSD 6 years following 9/11 were trauma history (odds ratio (OR) = 2.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.06, 4.85]); the presence of major depressive disorder 1-2 years following the trauma (OR = 2.80, 95% CI [1.17, 6.71]); and extent of occupational exposure (OR = 1.31, 95% CI [1.13, 1.51]). The implications of the findings for both screening and treatment of disaster workers are discussed.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Psychiatry, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10065, USA. juc2010@med.cornell.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

22095774

Citation

Cukor, Judith, et al. "The Longitudinal Course of PTSD Among Disaster Workers Deployed to the World Trade Center Following the Attacks of September 11th." Journal of Traumatic Stress, vol. 24, no. 5, 2011, pp. 506-14.
Cukor J, Wyka K, Mello B, et al. The longitudinal course of PTSD among disaster workers deployed to the World Trade Center following the attacks of September 11th. J Trauma Stress. 2011;24(5):506-14.
Cukor, J., Wyka, K., Mello, B., Olden, M., Jayasinghe, N., Roberts, J., Giosan, C., Crane, M., & Difede, J. (2011). The longitudinal course of PTSD among disaster workers deployed to the World Trade Center following the attacks of September 11th. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 24(5), 506-14. https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.20672
Cukor J, et al. The Longitudinal Course of PTSD Among Disaster Workers Deployed to the World Trade Center Following the Attacks of September 11th. J Trauma Stress. 2011;24(5):506-14. PubMed PMID: 22095774.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The longitudinal course of PTSD among disaster workers deployed to the World Trade Center following the attacks of September 11th. AU - Cukor,Judith, AU - Wyka,Katarzyna, AU - Mello,Brittany, AU - Olden,Megan, AU - Jayasinghe,Nimali, AU - Roberts,Jennifer, AU - Giosan,Cezar, AU - Crane,Michael, AU - Difede,Joann, Y1 - 2011/08/22/ PY - 2011/11/19/entrez PY - 2011/11/19/pubmed PY - 2012/4/5/medline SP - 506 EP - 14 JF - Journal of traumatic stress JO - J Trauma Stress VL - 24 IS - 5 N2 - This study examined the long-term mental health outcomes of 2,960 nonrescue disaster workers deployed to the World Trade Center site in New York City following the September 11, 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks. Semistructured interviews and standardized self-report measures were used to assess the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other psychopathology 4 and 6 years after the attacks. Clinician-measured rates of PTSD and partial PTSD 4-years posttrauma were 8.4% and 8.9%, respectively, in a subsample of 727 individuals. Rates decreased to 5.8% and 7.7% for full and partial PTSD 6 years posttrauma. For the larger sample, self-report scores revealed probable PTSD and partial PTSD prevalence to be 4.8% and 3.6% at 4 years, and 2.4% and 1.8% at 6 years. Approximately 70% of workers never met criteria for PTSD. Although PTSD rates decreased significantly over time, many workers remained symptomatic, with others showing delayed-onset PTSD. The strongest predictors of ongoing PTSD 6 years following 9/11 were trauma history (odds ratio (OR) = 2.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.06, 4.85]); the presence of major depressive disorder 1-2 years following the trauma (OR = 2.80, 95% CI [1.17, 6.71]); and extent of occupational exposure (OR = 1.31, 95% CI [1.13, 1.51]). The implications of the findings for both screening and treatment of disaster workers are discussed. SN - 1573-6598 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22095774/The_longitudinal_course_of_PTSD_among_disaster_workers_deployed_to_the_World_Trade_Center_following_the_attacks_of_September_11th_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.20672 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -