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Fertility after contraception or abortion.
Fertil Steril. 1990 Oct; 54(4):559-73.FS

Abstract

There is a very small correlation, if any, between the prior use of OCs and congenital malformations, including Down's syndrome. There are few, if any, recent reports on masculinization of a female fetus born to a mother who took an OC containing 1 mg of a progestogen during early pregnancy. However, patients suspected of being pregnant and who are desirous of continuing that pregnancy should not continue to take OCs, nor should progestogen withdrawal pregnancy tests be used. Concern still exists regarding the occurrence of congenital abnormalities in babies born to such women. The incidence of postoperative infection after first trimester therapeutic abortion in this country is low. However, increasing numbers of women are undergoing repeated pregnancy terminations, and their risk for subsequent pelvic infections may be multiplied with each succeeding abortion. The incidence of prematurity due to cervical incompetence or surgical infertility after first trimester pregnancy terminations is not increased significantly. Asherman's syndrome may occur after septic therapeutic abortion. The pregnancy rate after treatment of this syndrome is low. The return of menses and the achievement of a pregnancy may be slightly delayed after OCs are discontinued, but the fertility rate is within the normal range by 1 year. The incidence of postpill amenorrhea of greater than 6 months' duration is probably less than 1%. The occurrence of the syndrome does not seem to be related to length of use or type of pill. Patients with prior normal menses as well as those with menstrual abnormalities before use of OCs may develop this syndrome. Patients with normal estrogen and gonadotropin levels usually respond with return of menses and ovulation when treated with clomiphene. The rate for achievement of pregnancy is much lower than that for patients with spontaneous return of menses. The criteria for defining PID or for categorizing its severity are diverse. The incidence of PID is higher among IUD users than among patients taking OCs or using a barrier method. The excess risk of PID among IUD users, with the exception of the first few months after insertion, is related to sexually transmitted diseases and not the IUD. Women with no risk factors for sexually transmitted diseases have little increased risk of PID or infertility associated with IUD use. There appears to be no increased risk of congenital anomalies, altered sex ratio, or early pregnancy loss among spermicide users. All present methods of contraception entail some risk to the patient. The risk of imparied future fertility with the use of any method appears to be low.(

ABSTRACT

TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Francis Scott Key Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland 21224.No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

2209874

Citation

Huggins, G R., and V E. Cullins. "Fertility After Contraception or Abortion." Fertility and Sterility, vol. 54, no. 4, 1990, pp. 559-73.
Huggins GR, Cullins VE. Fertility after contraception or abortion. Fertil Steril. 1990;54(4):559-73.
Huggins, G. R., & Cullins, V. E. (1990). Fertility after contraception or abortion. Fertility and Sterility, 54(4), 559-73.
Huggins GR, Cullins VE. Fertility After Contraception or Abortion. Fertil Steril. 1990;54(4):559-73. PubMed PMID: 2209874.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Fertility after contraception or abortion. AU - Huggins,G R, AU - Cullins,V E, PY - 1990/10/1/pubmed PY - 1990/10/1/medline PY - 1990/10/1/entrez KW - Abortion History KW - Abortion, Induced KW - Abortion, Legal KW - Abortion, Spontaneous KW - Adhesions KW - Amenorrhea KW - Anovulation KW - Biology KW - Chromosome Abnormalities KW - Clomiphene KW - Congenital Abnormalities KW - Contraception KW - Contraceptive Agents KW - Contraceptive Methods--complications KW - Contraceptive Methods--side effects KW - Contraceptive Usage KW - Diseases KW - Family Planning KW - Female Contraception KW - Fertility Agents KW - Fertility Control, Postconception KW - Genitalia KW - Genitalia, Female KW - Infections KW - Infertility KW - Iud--complications KW - Literature Review KW - Menstruation Disorders KW - Neonatal Diseases And Abnormalities KW - Oral Contraceptives--side effects KW - Ovarian Effects KW - Ovary KW - Pelvic Infections KW - Physiology KW - Pregnancy Complications KW - Previous Practice KW - Reproduction KW - Reproductive Control Agents KW - Reproductive Tract Infections KW - Risk Factors KW - Sexually Transmitted Diseases KW - Signs And Symptoms KW - Spermicidal Contraceptive Agents KW - Urogenital System KW - Vacuum Aspiration SP - 559 EP - 73 JF - Fertility and sterility JO - Fertil. Steril. VL - 54 IS - 4 N2 - There is a very small correlation, if any, between the prior use of OCs and congenital malformations, including Down's syndrome. There are few, if any, recent reports on masculinization of a female fetus born to a mother who took an OC containing 1 mg of a progestogen during early pregnancy. However, patients suspected of being pregnant and who are desirous of continuing that pregnancy should not continue to take OCs, nor should progestogen withdrawal pregnancy tests be used. Concern still exists regarding the occurrence of congenital abnormalities in babies born to such women. The incidence of postoperative infection after first trimester therapeutic abortion in this country is low. However, increasing numbers of women are undergoing repeated pregnancy terminations, and their risk for subsequent pelvic infections may be multiplied with each succeeding abortion. The incidence of prematurity due to cervical incompetence or surgical infertility after first trimester pregnancy terminations is not increased significantly. Asherman's syndrome may occur after septic therapeutic abortion. The pregnancy rate after treatment of this syndrome is low. The return of menses and the achievement of a pregnancy may be slightly delayed after OCs are discontinued, but the fertility rate is within the normal range by 1 year. The incidence of postpill amenorrhea of greater than 6 months' duration is probably less than 1%. The occurrence of the syndrome does not seem to be related to length of use or type of pill. Patients with prior normal menses as well as those with menstrual abnormalities before use of OCs may develop this syndrome. Patients with normal estrogen and gonadotropin levels usually respond with return of menses and ovulation when treated with clomiphene. The rate for achievement of pregnancy is much lower than that for patients with spontaneous return of menses. The criteria for defining PID or for categorizing its severity are diverse. The incidence of PID is higher among IUD users than among patients taking OCs or using a barrier method. The excess risk of PID among IUD users, with the exception of the first few months after insertion, is related to sexually transmitted diseases and not the IUD. Women with no risk factors for sexually transmitted diseases have little increased risk of PID or infertility associated with IUD use. There appears to be no increased risk of congenital anomalies, altered sex ratio, or early pregnancy loss among spermicide users. All present methods of contraception entail some risk to the patient. The risk of imparied future fertility with the use of any method appears to be low.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) SN - 0015-0282 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/2209874/Fertility_after_contraception_or_abortion_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0015-0282(16)53808-4 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -