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EMAS position statement: Vitamin D and postmenopausal health.
Maturitas 2012; 71(1):83-8M

Abstract

INTRODUCTION

There is emerging evidence on the widespread tissue effects of vitamin D.

AIMS

To formulate a position statement on the role of vitamin D in postmenopausal women.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Literature review and consensus of expert opinion.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS

Epidemiological and prospective studies have related vitamin D deficiency with not only osteoporosis but also cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, infections and neurodegenerative disease. However the evidence is robust for skeletal but not nonskeletal outcomes where data from large prospective studies are lacking. The major natural source of vitamin D is cutaneous synthesis through exposure to sunlight with a small amount from the diet in animal-based foods such as fatty fish, eggs and milk. Vitamin D status is determined by measuring serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels. Optimal serum 25(OH)D levels are in the region of 30-90 ng/mL (75-225 nmol/L) though there is no international consensus. Levels vary according to time of the year (lower in the winter), latitude, altitude, air pollution, skin pigmentation, use of sunscreens and clothing coverage. Risk factors for low serum 25(OH)D levels include: obesity, malabsorption syndromes, medication use (e.g. anticonvulsants, antiretrovirals), skin aging, low sun exposure and those in residential care. Fortified foods do not necessarily provide sufficient amounts of vitamin D. Regular sunlight exposure (without sunscreens) for 15 min, 3-4 times a week, in the middle of the day in summer generate healthy levels. The recommended daily allowance is 600 IU/day increasing to 800 IU/day in those aged 71 years and older. Supplementation can be undertaken with either vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) or vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) with monitoring depending on the dose used and the presence of concomitant medical conditions such as renal disease.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Universidad de Zaragoza, Facultad de Medicina, Hospital Clínico, Domingo Miral s/n, Zaragoza 50009, Spain. faustino.perez@unizar.esNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

22100145

Citation

Pérez-López, Faustino R., et al. "EMAS Position Statement: Vitamin D and Postmenopausal Health." Maturitas, vol. 71, no. 1, 2012, pp. 83-8.
Pérez-López FR, Brincat M, Erel CT, et al. EMAS position statement: Vitamin D and postmenopausal health. Maturitas. 2012;71(1):83-8.
Pérez-López, F. R., Brincat, M., Erel, C. T., Tremollieres, F., Gambacciani, M., Lambrinoudaki, I., ... Rees, M. (2012). EMAS position statement: Vitamin D and postmenopausal health. Maturitas, 71(1), pp. 83-8. doi:10.1016/j.maturitas.2011.11.002.
Pérez-López FR, et al. EMAS Position Statement: Vitamin D and Postmenopausal Health. Maturitas. 2012;71(1):83-8. PubMed PMID: 22100145.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - EMAS position statement: Vitamin D and postmenopausal health. AU - Pérez-López,Faustino R, AU - Brincat,Marc, AU - Erel,C Tamer, AU - Tremollieres,Florence, AU - Gambacciani,Marco, AU - Lambrinoudaki,Irene, AU - Moen,Mette H, AU - Schenck-Gustafsson,Karin, AU - Vujovic,Svetlana, AU - Rozenberg,Serge, AU - Rees,Margaret, Y1 - 2011/11/17/ PY - 2011/11/01/received PY - 2011/11/01/accepted PY - 2011/11/22/entrez PY - 2011/11/22/pubmed PY - 2012/6/7/medline SP - 83 EP - 8 JF - Maturitas JO - Maturitas VL - 71 IS - 1 N2 - INTRODUCTION: There is emerging evidence on the widespread tissue effects of vitamin D. AIMS: To formulate a position statement on the role of vitamin D in postmenopausal women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Literature review and consensus of expert opinion. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Epidemiological and prospective studies have related vitamin D deficiency with not only osteoporosis but also cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, infections and neurodegenerative disease. However the evidence is robust for skeletal but not nonskeletal outcomes where data from large prospective studies are lacking. The major natural source of vitamin D is cutaneous synthesis through exposure to sunlight with a small amount from the diet in animal-based foods such as fatty fish, eggs and milk. Vitamin D status is determined by measuring serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels. Optimal serum 25(OH)D levels are in the region of 30-90 ng/mL (75-225 nmol/L) though there is no international consensus. Levels vary according to time of the year (lower in the winter), latitude, altitude, air pollution, skin pigmentation, use of sunscreens and clothing coverage. Risk factors for low serum 25(OH)D levels include: obesity, malabsorption syndromes, medication use (e.g. anticonvulsants, antiretrovirals), skin aging, low sun exposure and those in residential care. Fortified foods do not necessarily provide sufficient amounts of vitamin D. Regular sunlight exposure (without sunscreens) for 15 min, 3-4 times a week, in the middle of the day in summer generate healthy levels. The recommended daily allowance is 600 IU/day increasing to 800 IU/day in those aged 71 years and older. Supplementation can be undertaken with either vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) or vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) with monitoring depending on the dose used and the presence of concomitant medical conditions such as renal disease. SN - 1873-4111 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22100145/EMAS_position_statement:_Vitamin_D_and_postmenopausal_health_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0378-5122(11)00365-3 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -