Prognostic value of PINI index in patients with multiple myeloma.Eur J Haematol 2012; 88(4):306-13EJ
The Prognostic Inflammatory and Nutritional Index (PINI) is a simple scoring system that aggregates two blood markers of inflammatory [C-reactive protein (CRP) and orosomucoid] and of nutritional (albumin and prealbumin) states. It is used in routine practice in geriatric medicine, especially in hospitalized elderly patients. This study was undertaken to evaluate the usefulness of PINI index in multiple myeloma (MM), a malignancy of the elderly.
The PINI score was determined in 231 previously untreated patients with MM, of whom 112 were ≥65 yrs old. The serum albumin, prealbumin, orosomucoid (human α1-acid glycoprotein), and hsCRP are measured routinely by immunonephelometry.
In the overall population and the elderly subset, PINI ≥ 4 ('high PINI') was correlated with a shorter median survival, 26 vs. 65 months in the high and low PINI groups, respectively. The prognostic impact of PINI index was dramatic in the elderly MM subgroup, 6 and 45 months, respectively. The high PINI index also predicted for shorter survival in various groups with good prognostic, such as low International Staging System (ISS) stages, low b2m, and absence of del17p and t(4;14), further demonstrating its prognostic impact on overall survival. In multivariate analysis, PINI index provided additional survival prognostic information to b2m in a b2m/PINI model.
PINI index appears to be a useful and easy-to-perform marker in routine to determine the prognosis of patients with MM, especially in the elderly population. PINI might represent an alternative to ISS score, especially in elderly patients, in the future.