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Safety and side effects of cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent.

Abstract

Cannabidiol (CBD), a major nonpsychotropic constituent of Cannabis, has multiple pharmacological actions, including anxiolytic, antipsychotic, antiemetic and anti-inflammatory properties. However, little is known about its safety and side effect profile in animals and humans. This review describes in vivo and in vitro reports of CBD administration across a wide range of concentrations, based on reports retrieved from Web of Science, Scielo and Medline. The keywords searched were "cannabinoids", "cannabidiol" and "side effects". Several studies suggest that CBD is non-toxic in non-transformed cells and does not induce changes on food intake, does not induce catalepsy, does not affect physiological parameters (heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature), does not affect gastrointestinal transit and does not alter psychomotor or psychological functions. Also, chronic use and high doses up to 1,500 mg/day of CBD are reportedly well tolerated in humans. Conversely, some studies reported that this cannabinoid can induce some side effects, including inhibition of hepatic drug metabolism, alterations of in vitro cell viability, decreased fertilization capacity, and decreased activities of p-glycoprotein and other drug transporters. Based on recent advances in cannabinoid administration in humans, controlled CBD may be safe in humans and animals. However, further studies are needed to clarify these reported in vitro and in vivo side effects.

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  • Publisher Full Text
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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Clinical, Toxicological and Food Sciences Analysis, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

    , ,

    Source

    Current drug safety 6:4 2011 Sep 1 pg 237-49

    MeSH

    Animals
    Anti-Anxiety Agents
    Anti-Inflammatory Agents
    Antiemetics
    Antipsychotic Agents
    Cannabidiol
    Cannabis
    Cell Survival
    Eating
    Humans

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    22129319

    Citation

    TY - JOUR T1 - Safety and side effects of cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent. AU - Bergamaschi,Mateus Machado, AU - Queiroz,Regina Helena Costa, AU - Zuardi,Antonio Waldo, AU - Crippa,José Alexandre S, PY - 2011/8/8/received PY - 2011/10/10/revised PY - 2011/10/10/accepted PY - 2011/12/2/entrez PY - 2011/12/2/pubmed PY - 2012/8/21/medline SP - 237 EP - 49 JF - Current drug safety JO - Curr Drug Saf VL - 6 IS - 4 N2 - Cannabidiol (CBD), a major nonpsychotropic constituent of Cannabis, has multiple pharmacological actions, including anxiolytic, antipsychotic, antiemetic and anti-inflammatory properties. However, little is known about its safety and side effect profile in animals and humans. This review describes in vivo and in vitro reports of CBD administration across a wide range of concentrations, based on reports retrieved from Web of Science, Scielo and Medline. The keywords searched were "cannabinoids", "cannabidiol" and "side effects". Several studies suggest that CBD is non-toxic in non-transformed cells and does not induce changes on food intake, does not induce catalepsy, does not affect physiological parameters (heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature), does not affect gastrointestinal transit and does not alter psychomotor or psychological functions. Also, chronic use and high doses up to 1,500 mg/day of CBD are reportedly well tolerated in humans. Conversely, some studies reported that this cannabinoid can induce some side effects, including inhibition of hepatic drug metabolism, alterations of in vitro cell viability, decreased fertilization capacity, and decreased activities of p-glycoprotein and other drug transporters. Based on recent advances in cannabinoid administration in humans, controlled CBD may be safe in humans and animals. However, further studies are needed to clarify these reported in vitro and in vivo side effects. SN - 2212-3911 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22129319/abstract/Safety_and_Side_Effects_of_Cannabidiol_a_Cannabis_sativa_Constituent_ L2 - http://www.eurekaselect.com/75752/article ER -