Reutilization of mango byproducts: study of the effect of extraction solvent and temperature on their antioxidant properties.J Food Sci. 2012 Jan; 77(1):C80-8.JF
Mango biowastes, obtained after processing, contain large amounts of compounds with antioxidant activity that can be reused to reduce their environmental impact. The present study evaluates the effect of solvent (methanol, ethanol, acetone, water, methanol:water [1:1], ethanol:water [1:1], and acetone:water [1:1]), and temperature (25, 50, and 75 °C) on the efficiency of the extraction of antioxidants from mango peel and seed. Among the factors optimized, extraction solvent was the most important. The solvents that best obtained extracts with high antioxidant capacity were methanol, methanol:water, ethanol:water, and acetone:water (β-carotene test, antioxidant activity coefficient 173 to 926; thiobarbituric acid reactive substances test, inhibition ratio 15% to 89%; 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid ABTS(·+); and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl DPPH· scavenging, 7 to 22 and 8 to 28 g trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity [TE] per 100 g mango biowaste on a dry matter basis [DW]). Similarly, the flavonoid (0.21 to 1.4 g (+)-catechin equivalents per 100 g DW), tannin (3.8 to 14 g tannic acid equivalents per 100 g DW), and proanthocyanidin (0.23 to 7.8 g leucoanthocyanidin equivalents per 100 g DW) content was highest in the peel extracts obtained with methanol, ethanol:water, or acetone:water and in the seed extracts obtained with methanol or acetone:water. From the perspective of food security, it is advisable to choose ethanol (which also has a notable antioxidant content), ethanol:water, or acetone:water, as they are all solvents that can be used in compliance with good manufacturing practice. In general, increasing temperature improves the capacity of the extracts obtained from mango peel and seed to inhibit lipid peroxidation; however, its effect on the extraction of phytochemical compounds or on the capacity of the extracts to scavenge free radicals was negligible in comparison to that of the solvent.
There are many antioxidant compounds in mango peel and seed, and they could be used as a natural and very inexpensive alternative to synthetic food additives. However, the conditions in which the antioxidants are extracted must be optimized. This work proves that conditions such as extraction solvent or temperature have a crucial impact on obtaining extracts rich in antioxidants from mango biowastes.