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High concentrations of cadmium, cerium and lanthanum in indoor air due to environmental tobacco smoke.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is one of the most important sources for indoor air pollution and a substantial threat to human health, but data on the concentrations of the trace metals cerium (Ce) and lanthanum (La) in context with ETS exposure are scarce. Therefore the aim of our study was to quantify Ce and La concentrations in indoor air with high ETS load.

METHODS

In two subsequent investigations Ce, La and cadmium (Cd) in 3 smokers' (11 samples) and 7 non-smokers' (28 samples) households as well as in 28 hospitality venues in Southern Germany were analysed. Active sampling of indoor air was conducted continuously for seven days in every season in the smokers' and non-smokers' residences, and for 4h during the main visiting hours in the hospitality venues (restaurants, pubs, and discotheques).

RESULTS

In terms of residences median levels of Cd were 0.1 ng/m(3) for non-smokers' and 0.8 ng/m(3) for smokers' households. Median concentrations of Ce were 0.4 ng/m(3) and 9.6 ng/m(3), and median concentrations of La were 0.2 ng/m(3) and 5.9 ng/m(3) for non-smokers' and for smokers' households, respectively. In the different types of hospitality venues median levels ranged from 2.6 to 9.7 ng/m(3) for Cd, from 18.5 to 50.0 ng/m(3) for Ce and from 10.6 to 23.0 ng/m(3) for La with highest median levels in discotheques.

CONCLUSIONS

The high concentrations of Ce and La found in ETS enriched indoor air of smokers' households and hospitality venues are an important finding as Ce and La are associated with adverse health effects and data on this issue are scarce. Further research on their toxicological, human and public health consequences is urgently required.

Links

  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Institute and Outpatient Clinic for Occupational, Social and Environmental Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany. Antje.Boehlandt@med.uni-muenchen.de

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    Source

    The Science of the total environment 414: 2012 Jan 1 pg 738-41

    MeSH

    Air Pollution, Indoor
    Cadmium
    Cerium
    Germany
    Housing
    Humans
    Lanthanum
    Mass Spectrometry
    Restaurants
    Tobacco Smoke Pollution

    Pub Type(s)

    Comparative Study
    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    22137652