[Early invasive and non-invasive approach to treatment of acute non-ST-segment elevation coronary syndrome].Ter Arkh. 2011; 83(9):20-4.TA
The aim of the study is to assess the efficiency of early invasive treatment versus conservative treatment for patients with non-ST acute coronary syndrome (ACS), and to study immediate results of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in terms of the risk of adverse events.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
The investigation includes 112 patients with non-ST ACS having risk of adverse outcome determined by the GRACE system. More than half of the patients (77/68.8%) underwent diagnostic coronary angiography within 72 hours of admission, and the decision was made on a subsequent treatment strategy (early invasive or conservative approach). In-hospital outcomes (cardiac deaths, nonfatal MI, reMI), cumulative frequency of these events have been studied according to the risk assessment scale GRACE and treatment strategy.
Low risk was determined in 33.9% of patients, intermediate--in 32.1%, and high--in 33.9%. On the whole, frequency of myocardial revascularization was assessed as 56.3%. Fifty-one (45.5%) patients received early invasive treatment, 12 (10.7%)--coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). A conservative approach was used in 49 cases (43.8%). An early invasive treatment was given to 20 patients (52.6%) from each of the low- and high-risk groups, 11 (30.6%)--from the intermediate risk group. In-hospital cardiac deaths were observed only in the high-risk group, and this number was higher in case of conservative treatment versus early invasive treatment: 3 (30%) versus 1 (50%). Non-fatal MIs in the form of re(MI) were also diagnosed only in the high-risk group following conservative treatment: 2 (20.0%). Nevertheless, no reliable difference in the frequency of each complication was found (p = 0.095; p = 0.1). Significant differences in the high-risk group were proven while comparing the impact of early invasive and conservative approaches on the cumulative frequency of in-hospital death and (re)MI cases (50.0% versus 5.0%; p = 0.009). No benefits of an early invasive approach were identified for low-risk and intermediate risk groups.
Early invasive approach compared with a conservative approach in high risk patients with non-ST acute coronary syndrome can improve clinical outcomes with a decrease in the total frequency of in-hospital death, reMI.