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Support for a novel five-factor model of posttraumatic stress symptoms in three independent samples of Iraq/Afghanistan veterans: a confirmatory factor analytic study.
J Psychiatr Res. 2012 Mar; 46(3):317-22.JP

Abstract

BACKGROUND

A large body of confirmatory factor analytic studies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms has demonstrated the superiority of 4-factor dysphoria and emotional numbing models over the DSM-IV model. Recently, a novel 5-factor model, which separates the DSM-IV hyperarousal symptom cluster into distinct dysphoric and anxious arousal clusters, has been identified. However, little research has evaluated the best-fitting representation of PTSD symptoms in veterans of the Iraq and Afghanistan wars.

METHODS

Confirmatory factor analyses were used to examine the factor structure of the PTSD Checklist in three independent samples of Iraq/Afghanistan veterans, including two community samples and a treatment-seeking sample.

RESULTS

In all three samples, a novel model with five correlated factors reflecting symptoms of re-experiencing, avoidance, emotional numbing, dysphoric arousal, and anxious arousal provided a significantly better representation of PTSD symptoms than the DSM-IV, dysphoria, and numbing models. This model also showed evidence of "excellent fit" in the community samples according to empirically-defined benchmarks.

CONCLUSIONS

These findings suggest that PTSD symptomatology in both community and treatment-seeking Iraq/Afghanistan veterans may be best represented by a 5-factor model that separates the DSM-IV PTSD hyperarousal symptom cluster into distinct dysphoric arousal and anxious arousal clusters.

Authors+Show Affiliations

National Center for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Clinical Neurosciences Division, VA Connecticut Healthcare System, West Haven, CT, USA. robert.pietrzak@yale.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

22154134

Citation

Pietrzak, Robert H., et al. "Support for a Novel Five-factor Model of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in Three Independent Samples of Iraq/Afghanistan Veterans: a Confirmatory Factor Analytic Study." Journal of Psychiatric Research, vol. 46, no. 3, 2012, pp. 317-22.
Pietrzak RH, Tsai J, Harpaz-Rotem I, et al. Support for a novel five-factor model of posttraumatic stress symptoms in three independent samples of Iraq/Afghanistan veterans: a confirmatory factor analytic study. J Psychiatr Res. 2012;46(3):317-22.
Pietrzak, R. H., Tsai, J., Harpaz-Rotem, I., Whealin, J. M., & Southwick, S. M. (2012). Support for a novel five-factor model of posttraumatic stress symptoms in three independent samples of Iraq/Afghanistan veterans: a confirmatory factor analytic study. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 46(3), 317-22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2011.11.013
Pietrzak RH, et al. Support for a Novel Five-factor Model of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in Three Independent Samples of Iraq/Afghanistan Veterans: a Confirmatory Factor Analytic Study. J Psychiatr Res. 2012;46(3):317-22. PubMed PMID: 22154134.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Support for a novel five-factor model of posttraumatic stress symptoms in three independent samples of Iraq/Afghanistan veterans: a confirmatory factor analytic study. AU - Pietrzak,Robert H, AU - Tsai,Jack, AU - Harpaz-Rotem,Ilan, AU - Whealin,Julia M, AU - Southwick,Steven M, Y1 - 2011/12/09/ PY - 2011/09/16/received PY - 2011/11/18/revised PY - 2011/11/22/accepted PY - 2011/12/14/entrez PY - 2011/12/14/pubmed PY - 2012/7/24/medline SP - 317 EP - 22 JF - Journal of psychiatric research JO - J Psychiatr Res VL - 46 IS - 3 N2 - BACKGROUND: A large body of confirmatory factor analytic studies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms has demonstrated the superiority of 4-factor dysphoria and emotional numbing models over the DSM-IV model. Recently, a novel 5-factor model, which separates the DSM-IV hyperarousal symptom cluster into distinct dysphoric and anxious arousal clusters, has been identified. However, little research has evaluated the best-fitting representation of PTSD symptoms in veterans of the Iraq and Afghanistan wars. METHODS: Confirmatory factor analyses were used to examine the factor structure of the PTSD Checklist in three independent samples of Iraq/Afghanistan veterans, including two community samples and a treatment-seeking sample. RESULTS: In all three samples, a novel model with five correlated factors reflecting symptoms of re-experiencing, avoidance, emotional numbing, dysphoric arousal, and anxious arousal provided a significantly better representation of PTSD symptoms than the DSM-IV, dysphoria, and numbing models. This model also showed evidence of "excellent fit" in the community samples according to empirically-defined benchmarks. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that PTSD symptomatology in both community and treatment-seeking Iraq/Afghanistan veterans may be best represented by a 5-factor model that separates the DSM-IV PTSD hyperarousal symptom cluster into distinct dysphoric arousal and anxious arousal clusters. SN - 1879-1379 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22154134/Support_for_a_novel_five_factor_model_of_posttraumatic_stress_symptoms_in_three_independent_samples_of_Iraq/Afghanistan_veterans:_a_confirmatory_factor_analytic_study_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0022-3956(11)00279-2 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -