[Surveillance and forecast system of schistosomiasis in Jiangsu Province V monitoring of infectivity of Schistosoma japonicum miracidia of Yangtze River].Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi. 2011 Apr; 23(2):121-4.ZX
To establish an approach to monitor the Schistosoma japonicum miracidia in waterbody of the Yangtze River, and monitor the infectivity of water body, so as to provide the evidence for tracing and controlling infection source and interrupting the transmission of schistosomiasis, and Oncomelania snail control.
The floating bottle-nylon bag sentinel snails method was employed. A total of 45 surveillance sites were selected along the Jiangsu section of the Yangtze River, 500 snails were placed into each site from May to September, once every month. Twenty-eight hours later, all the snails were transferred and raised in an incubator at 25 degrees C. Two months after the first recovery, the snail infection was detected each month by using the cercaria-shedding test. Three months after the final placement, all the snails were dissected for observation of the infection. The activities of humans and domestic animals were surveyed in the settings where infected snails were found. The database of surveillance results of sentinel snails in the Yangtze River, Jiangsu Province was established, and the geographical distribution map of site with infected snails was drawn, and the probability that snails were infected with S. japonicum was estimated.
A total of 44 717 sentinel snails were placed in 45 sites during the period of 5 months, and 43 477 recovered, with a recovery rate of 97.23%. A total of 81 410 snails were detected by the cercaria-shedding test, no infections were found. A total of 13 033 snails were dissected, and 5 were infected, with an infection rate of 0.038%. The probability of snail infection in water was 4.11 out of a million. Five sites with infected snails were found in 45 sites, with an occurrence rate of 11.11%. The sites with infected sentinel snails were distributed in south bank (3, 21.43%), north bank (1, 5.56%) and river center (1, 7.69%), respectively. The occurrence rate of sites with infected snails in south bank was 3.8 times more than that in north bank. Among the 5 sites, 3 were anchor points of boat fishermen.
The contamination of S. japonicum eggs in south bank of the Yangtze River is higher than that in north bank in Jiangsu Province, and the anchor point of boat fisherman is one of the important contamination regions. The floating bottle-nylon bag sentinel snails testing method is an effective approach to monitor the contamination of S. japonicum eggs in water.