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Effects of natural eggshell membrane (NEM) on cytokine production in cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells: increased suppression of tumor necrosis factor-α levels after in vitro digestion.
J Med Food. 2012 Apr; 15(4):360-8.JM

Abstract

Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) plays an important role in inflammatory processes. This study examined the effects of natural eggshell membrane (NEM(®)) (ESM Technologies, LLC, Carthage, MO, USA) on interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and TNF-α cytokine production by 4-day peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures exposed to serial dilutions of either an aqueous extract of natural eggshell membrane (NEM-AQ) or NEM subjected to in vitro digestion (NEM-IVD). The effects on cytokine production were also assessed in the presence of phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and pokeweed mitogen (PWM) where exposure to NEM-AQ resulted in reduced levels of proliferation and statistically significant effects on IL-6, IL-10, IFN-γ, and TNF-α cytokine production. NEM-AQ reduced levels of IL-6, IL-10, IFN-γ, and TNF-α in cultures exposed to PHA. In cultures containing PWM, NEM-AQ reduced production of IL-10 and at the highest dose tested increased IL-6 and decreased TNF-α cytokine levels. NEM-IVD, at the two lowest concentrations of product, significantly reduced TNF-α production by PBMC cultures exposed to PWM compared with the in vitro digest control or native NEM. Taken together, these results suggest that NEM-AQ can influence signaling events in response to the T cell-specific mitogen PHA as well as to the mitogen PWM that require cellular cross-talk and that these effects may be partially mediated through a reduction in level of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α. The suppression of TNF-α production in the presence of NEM-IVD is promising for the use of NEM as a consumable anti-inflammatory product.

Authors+Show Affiliations

NIS Labs , Klamath Falls, Oregon, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

22168811

Citation

Benson, Kathleen F., et al. "Effects of Natural Eggshell Membrane (NEM) On Cytokine Production in Cultures of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells: Increased Suppression of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Levels After in Vitro Digestion." Journal of Medicinal Food, vol. 15, no. 4, 2012, pp. 360-8.
Benson KF, Ruff KJ, Jensen GS. Effects of natural eggshell membrane (NEM) on cytokine production in cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells: increased suppression of tumor necrosis factor-α levels after in vitro digestion. J Med Food. 2012;15(4):360-8.
Benson, K. F., Ruff, K. J., & Jensen, G. S. (2012). Effects of natural eggshell membrane (NEM) on cytokine production in cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells: increased suppression of tumor necrosis factor-α levels after in vitro digestion. Journal of Medicinal Food, 15(4), 360-8. https://doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2011.0197
Benson KF, Ruff KJ, Jensen GS. Effects of Natural Eggshell Membrane (NEM) On Cytokine Production in Cultures of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells: Increased Suppression of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Levels After in Vitro Digestion. J Med Food. 2012;15(4):360-8. PubMed PMID: 22168811.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Effects of natural eggshell membrane (NEM) on cytokine production in cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells: increased suppression of tumor necrosis factor-α levels after in vitro digestion. AU - Benson,Kathleen F, AU - Ruff,Kevin J, AU - Jensen,Gitte S, Y1 - 2011/12/14/ PY - 2011/12/16/entrez PY - 2011/12/16/pubmed PY - 2012/7/17/medline SP - 360 EP - 8 JF - Journal of medicinal food JO - J Med Food VL - 15 IS - 4 N2 - Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) plays an important role in inflammatory processes. This study examined the effects of natural eggshell membrane (NEM(®)) (ESM Technologies, LLC, Carthage, MO, USA) on interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and TNF-α cytokine production by 4-day peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures exposed to serial dilutions of either an aqueous extract of natural eggshell membrane (NEM-AQ) or NEM subjected to in vitro digestion (NEM-IVD). The effects on cytokine production were also assessed in the presence of phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and pokeweed mitogen (PWM) where exposure to NEM-AQ resulted in reduced levels of proliferation and statistically significant effects on IL-6, IL-10, IFN-γ, and TNF-α cytokine production. NEM-AQ reduced levels of IL-6, IL-10, IFN-γ, and TNF-α in cultures exposed to PHA. In cultures containing PWM, NEM-AQ reduced production of IL-10 and at the highest dose tested increased IL-6 and decreased TNF-α cytokine levels. NEM-IVD, at the two lowest concentrations of product, significantly reduced TNF-α production by PBMC cultures exposed to PWM compared with the in vitro digest control or native NEM. Taken together, these results suggest that NEM-AQ can influence signaling events in response to the T cell-specific mitogen PHA as well as to the mitogen PWM that require cellular cross-talk and that these effects may be partially mediated through a reduction in level of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α. The suppression of TNF-α production in the presence of NEM-IVD is promising for the use of NEM as a consumable anti-inflammatory product. SN - 1557-7600 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22168811/Effects_of_natural_eggshell_membrane__NEM__on_cytokine_production_in_cultures_of_peripheral_blood_mononuclear_cells:_increased_suppression_of_tumor_necrosis_factor_α_levels_after_in_vitro_digestion_ L2 - https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/full/10.1089/jmf.2011.0197?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -