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Using toxicity testing to evaluate electrochemical reactor operations.
Environ Toxicol Chem. 2012 Mar; 31(3):494-500.ET

Abstract

In the present study, the Microtox® test was used to track the toxicity of electrochemical effluents to the marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri as a function of reaction time. When electrochemistry was used to degrade aqueous phenol using different reactor configurations, two reaction pathways were identified, chlorine substitution and oxidation, depending on whether the electrolyte contained chloride. For a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode, electrochemistry using Na₂SO₄ electrolyte produced a significantly more toxic effluent than when using NaCl electrolyte with all other conditions remaining the same. This effect is attributed to the reaction pathway, specifically the production of benzoquinone. Benzoquinone was produced only during electrochemistry using Na₂SO₄ and is the most toxic potential intermediate, having nearly 800 times more toxicity than phenol. Although the use of NaCl produced a lower toxicity effluent than Na₂SO₄, caution should be observed because of the production of chlorinated phenols, which can be of special environmental concern. When comparing graphite rod and BDD plate anodes in terms of toxicity evolution when using Na₂SO₄, BDD was found to produce a lower toxicity effluent; this is a result of the increased oxidizing power of BDD, reducing the formation of benzoquinone. In this comparison, the type of anode material/electrode configuration did not seem to affect which intermediates were detected but did affect the quantity of and rate of production of intermediates.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Environmental Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. saylorgl@mail.uc.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Evaluation Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

22170029

Citation

Saylor, Greg L., et al. "Using Toxicity Testing to Evaluate Electrochemical Reactor Operations." Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, vol. 31, no. 3, 2012, pp. 494-500.
Saylor GL, Chen L, Kupferle MJ. Using toxicity testing to evaluate electrochemical reactor operations. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2012;31(3):494-500.
Saylor, G. L., Chen, L., & Kupferle, M. J. (2012). Using toxicity testing to evaluate electrochemical reactor operations. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 31(3), 494-500. https://doi.org/10.1002/etc.1719
Saylor GL, Chen L, Kupferle MJ. Using Toxicity Testing to Evaluate Electrochemical Reactor Operations. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2012;31(3):494-500. PubMed PMID: 22170029.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Using toxicity testing to evaluate electrochemical reactor operations. AU - Saylor,Greg L, AU - Chen,Linxi, AU - Kupferle,Margaret J, Y1 - 2012/02/06/ PY - 2011/08/15/received PY - 2011/09/20/revised PY - 2011/10/12/accepted PY - 2011/12/16/entrez PY - 2011/12/16/pubmed PY - 2012/8/21/medline SP - 494 EP - 500 JF - Environmental toxicology and chemistry JO - Environ. Toxicol. Chem. VL - 31 IS - 3 N2 - In the present study, the Microtox® test was used to track the toxicity of electrochemical effluents to the marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri as a function of reaction time. When electrochemistry was used to degrade aqueous phenol using different reactor configurations, two reaction pathways were identified, chlorine substitution and oxidation, depending on whether the electrolyte contained chloride. For a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode, electrochemistry using Na₂SO₄ electrolyte produced a significantly more toxic effluent than when using NaCl electrolyte with all other conditions remaining the same. This effect is attributed to the reaction pathway, specifically the production of benzoquinone. Benzoquinone was produced only during electrochemistry using Na₂SO₄ and is the most toxic potential intermediate, having nearly 800 times more toxicity than phenol. Although the use of NaCl produced a lower toxicity effluent than Na₂SO₄, caution should be observed because of the production of chlorinated phenols, which can be of special environmental concern. When comparing graphite rod and BDD plate anodes in terms of toxicity evolution when using Na₂SO₄, BDD was found to produce a lower toxicity effluent; this is a result of the increased oxidizing power of BDD, reducing the formation of benzoquinone. In this comparison, the type of anode material/electrode configuration did not seem to affect which intermediates were detected but did affect the quantity of and rate of production of intermediates. SN - 1552-8618 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22170029/Using_toxicity_testing_to_evaluate_electrochemical_reactor_operations_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/etc.1719 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -