Campomanesia lineatifolia Ruiz & Pav. as a gastroprotective agent.J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Feb 15; 139(3):772-9.JE
Campomanesia lineatifolia Ruiz and Pav. (Myrtaceae) is a native edible species found in the Amazon Rainforest, commonly known as gabiroba. In Brazil, Campomanesia species are frequently used in traditional medicine for gastrointestinal disorders.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The present study performed phytochemical analyses and determined both the in vitro antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extract of Campomanesia lineatifolia leaves (EEC) as well as its ethyl acetate fraction (EAFC). In this analysis, quercetin was used as a positive control. Gastroprotective activity was also investigated at different oral doses in two experimental models in rats - gastric lesion induced by ethanol and gastric lesion induced by indomethacin. In this analysis, cimetidine and sucralfate were used as positive controls. The area of gastric lesion underwent macroscopic and histomorphometric evaluations, while the mucus content was estimated by applying the periodic acid-Schiff stain. Oral acute toxicity was also assessed.
Phytochemical studies revealed the presence of flavonoids and tannins. Catechin and quercitrin were isolated by bioguided chromatographic fractionation of EAFC. EEC and EAFC presented in vitro antioxidant activity. The oral administration of EEC and EAFC at doses 100-400 mg/kg (ethanol model) and at doses of 400-1200 mg/kg (indomethacin model) proved to be effective in preventing gastric ulcerations in rats. Pretreatment with EAFC (400mg/kg) significantly increased the gastric mucus content in the ethanol model. No animals died during the acute oral toxicology test.
Results confirm the Brazilian ethnopharmacological use of Campomanesia lineatifolia as a gastroprotective agent and indicate that the anti-ulcer effect is most likely mediated by scavenging free radicals due to the polyphenol content and, at least in part, by increasing the mucus secretion and the mucosal defense. In addition, EEC and EAFC were found to be safe when applied to a 2000 mg/kg single oral dose.