Role of peroxisomes in ROS/RNS-metabolism: implications for human disease.Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012 Sep; 1822(9):1363-73.BB
Peroxisomes are cell organelles that play a central role in lipid metabolism. At the same time, these organelles generate reactive oxygen and nitrogen species as byproducts. Peroxisomes also possess intricate protective mechanisms to counteract oxidative stress and maintain redox balance. An imbalance between peroxisomal reactive oxygen species/reactive nitrogen species production and removal may possibly damage biomolecules, perturb cellular thiol levels, and deregulate cellular signaling pathways implicated in a variety of human diseases. Somewhat surprisingly, the potential role of peroxisomes in cellular redox metabolism has been underestimated for a long time. However, in recent years, peroxisomal reactive oxygen species/reactive nitrogen species metabolism and signaling have become the focus of a rapidly evolving and multidisciplinary research field with great prospects. This review is mainly devoted to discuss evidence supporting the notion that peroxisomal metabolism and oxidative stress are intimately interconnected and associated with age-related diseases. We focus on several key aspects of how peroxisomes contribute to cellular reactive oxygen species/reactive nitrogen species levels in mammalian cells and how these cells cope with peroxisome-derived oxidative stress. We also provide a brief overview of recent strategies that have been successfully employed to detect and modulate the peroxisomal redox status. Finally, we highlight some gaps in our knowledge and propose potential avenues for further research. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Metabolic Functions and Biogenesis of peroxisomes in Health and Disease.