The changing and dynamic epidemiology of meningococcal disease.Vaccine. 2012 May 30; 30 Suppl 2:B26-36.V
The epidemiology of invasive meningococcal disease continues to change rapidly, even in the three years since the first Meningococcal Exchange Meeting in 2008. Control of disease caused by serogroup C has been achieved in countries that have implemented meningococcal C or quadrivalent meningococcal ACWY conjugate vaccines. Initiation of mass immunization programs with meningococcal A conjugate vaccines across the meningitis belt of Africa may lead to the interruption of cyclical meningococcal epidemics. A meningococcal B vaccination program in New Zealand has led to a decreased incidence of high rates of endemic serogroup B disease. Increases in serogroup Y disease have been observed in certain Nordic countries which, if they persist, may require consideration of use of a multiple serogroup vaccine. The imminent availability of recombinant broadly protective serogroup B vaccines may provide the tools for further control of invasive meningococcal disease in areas where serogroup B disease predominates. Continued surveillance of meningococcal disease is essential; ongoing global efforts to improve the completeness of reporting are required.