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Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) show robust evidence for memory awareness across multiple generalization tests.
Anim Cogn. 2012 May; 15(3):409-19.AC

Abstract

The possibility that memory awareness occurs in nonhuman animals has been evaluated by providing opportunity to decline memory tests. Current evidence suggests that rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) selectively decline tests when memory is weak (Hampton in Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:5359-5362, 2001; Smith et al. in Behav Brain Sci 26:317-374, 2003). However, much of the existing research in nonhuman metacognition is subject to the criticism that, after considerable training on one test type, subjects learn to decline difficult trials based on associative learning of external test-specific contingencies rather than by evaluating the private status of memory or other cognitive states. We evaluated whether such test-specific associations could account for performance by presenting monkeys with a series of generalization tests across which no single association with external stimuli was likely to adaptively control use of the decline response. Six monkeys performed a four alternative delayed matching to location task and were significantly more accurate on trials with a decline option available than on trials without it, indicating that subjects selectively declined tests when memory was weak. Monkeys transferred appropriate use of the decline response under three conditions that assessed generalization: two tests that weakened memory and one test that enhanced memory in a novel way. Bidirectional generalization indicates that use of the decline response by monkeys is not controlled by specific external stimuli but is rather a flexible behavior based on a private assessment of memory.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Psychology, Emory University, 36 Eagle Row, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA. victoria.templer@emory.eduNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

22183204

Citation

Templer, Victoria L., and Robert R. Hampton. "Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca Mulatta) Show Robust Evidence for Memory Awareness Across Multiple Generalization Tests." Animal Cognition, vol. 15, no. 3, 2012, pp. 409-19.
Templer VL, Hampton RR. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) show robust evidence for memory awareness across multiple generalization tests. Anim Cogn. 2012;15(3):409-19.
Templer, V. L., & Hampton, R. R. (2012). Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) show robust evidence for memory awareness across multiple generalization tests. Animal Cognition, 15(3), 409-19. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10071-011-0468-4
Templer VL, Hampton RR. Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca Mulatta) Show Robust Evidence for Memory Awareness Across Multiple Generalization Tests. Anim Cogn. 2012;15(3):409-19. PubMed PMID: 22183204.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) show robust evidence for memory awareness across multiple generalization tests. AU - Templer,Victoria L, AU - Hampton,Robert R, Y1 - 2011/12/20/ PY - 2011/04/18/received PY - 2011/12/05/accepted PY - 2011/10/20/revised PY - 2011/12/21/entrez PY - 2011/12/21/pubmed PY - 2012/9/6/medline SP - 409 EP - 19 JF - Animal cognition JO - Anim Cogn VL - 15 IS - 3 N2 - The possibility that memory awareness occurs in nonhuman animals has been evaluated by providing opportunity to decline memory tests. Current evidence suggests that rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) selectively decline tests when memory is weak (Hampton in Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:5359-5362, 2001; Smith et al. in Behav Brain Sci 26:317-374, 2003). However, much of the existing research in nonhuman metacognition is subject to the criticism that, after considerable training on one test type, subjects learn to decline difficult trials based on associative learning of external test-specific contingencies rather than by evaluating the private status of memory or other cognitive states. We evaluated whether such test-specific associations could account for performance by presenting monkeys with a series of generalization tests across which no single association with external stimuli was likely to adaptively control use of the decline response. Six monkeys performed a four alternative delayed matching to location task and were significantly more accurate on trials with a decline option available than on trials without it, indicating that subjects selectively declined tests when memory was weak. Monkeys transferred appropriate use of the decline response under three conditions that assessed generalization: two tests that weakened memory and one test that enhanced memory in a novel way. Bidirectional generalization indicates that use of the decline response by monkeys is not controlled by specific external stimuli but is rather a flexible behavior based on a private assessment of memory. SN - 1435-9456 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22183204/Rhesus_monkeys__Macaca_mulatta__show_robust_evidence_for_memory_awareness_across_multiple_generalization_tests_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10071-011-0468-4 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -