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Macronutrients, vitamins and minerals intake and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a case-control study in Iran.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Although Iran is a high-risk region for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), dietary factors that may contribute to this high incidence have not been thoroughly studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of macronutrients, vitamins and minerals on the risk of ESCC.

METHODS

In this hospital-based case-control study, 47 cases with incident ESCC and 96 controls were interviewed and usual dietary intakes were collected using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Data were modeled through unconditional multiple logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), controlling for age, sex, gastrointestinal reflux, body mass index, smoking history (status, intensity and duration), physical activity, and education.

RESULTS

ESCC cases consumed significantly more hot foods and beverages and fried and barbecued meals, compared to the controls (p < 0.05). After adjusting for potential confounders, the risk of ESCC increased significantly in the highest tertiles of saturated fat [OR:2.88,95%CI:1.15-3.08], cholesterol [OR:1.53, 95%CI: 1.41-4.13], discretionary calorie [OR:1.51, 95%CI: 1.06-3.84], sodium [OR:1.49,95%CI:1.12-2.89] and total fat intakes [OR:1.48, 95%CI:1.09-3.04]. In contrast, being in the highest tertile of carbohydrate, dietary fiber and (n-3) fatty acid intake reduced the ESCC risk by 78%, 71% and 68%, respectively. The most cancer-protective effect was observed for the combination of high folate and vitamin E intakes (OR: 0.02, 95%CI: 0.00-0.87; p < 0.001). Controls consumed 623.5 times higher selenium, 5.48 times as much β-carotene and 1.98 times as much α-tocopherol as the amount ESCC cases consumed.

CONCLUSION

This study suggests that high intake of nutrients primarily found in plant-based foods is associated with a reduced esophageal cancer risk. Some nutrients such as folate, vitamin E and selenium might play major roles in the etiology of ESCC and their status may eventually be used as an epidemiological marker for esophageal cancer in Iran, and perhaps other high-risk regions.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Human Nutrition Division, Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Sciences, Edmonton Clinic Health Academy, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.

    , , ,

    Source

    Nutrition journal 10: 2011 Dec 20 pg 137

    MeSH

    Aged
    Carcinoma, Squamous Cell
    Case-Control Studies
    Confidence Intervals
    Diet
    Dietary Carbohydrates
    Dietary Fats
    Dietary Fiber
    Energy Intake
    Esophageal Neoplasms
    Feeding Behavior
    Female
    Folic Acid
    Hospitalization
    Humans
    Incidence
    Interviews as Topic
    Iran
    Logistic Models
    Male
    Micronutrients
    Middle Aged
    Odds Ratio
    Pilot Projects
    Risk Factors
    Selenium
    Surveys and Questionnaires
    Vitamin E
    Vitamins
    alpha-Tocopherol
    beta Carotene

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    22185224

    Citation

    Jessri, Mahsa, et al. "Macronutrients, Vitamins and Minerals Intake and Risk of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: a Case-control Study in Iran." Nutrition Journal, vol. 10, 2011, p. 137.
    Jessri M, Rashidkhani B, Hajizadeh B, et al. Macronutrients, vitamins and minerals intake and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a case-control study in Iran. Nutr J. 2011;10:137.
    Jessri, M., Rashidkhani, B., Hajizadeh, B., Jessri, M., & Gotay, C. (2011). Macronutrients, vitamins and minerals intake and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a case-control study in Iran. Nutrition Journal, 10, p. 137. doi:10.1186/1475-2891-10-137.
    Jessri M, et al. Macronutrients, Vitamins and Minerals Intake and Risk of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: a Case-control Study in Iran. Nutr J. 2011 Dec 20;10:137. PubMed PMID: 22185224.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Macronutrients, vitamins and minerals intake and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a case-control study in Iran. AU - Jessri,Mahsa, AU - Rashidkhani,Bahram, AU - Hajizadeh,Bahareh, AU - Jessri,Maryam, AU - Gotay,Carolyn, Y1 - 2011/12/20/ PY - 2011/02/16/received PY - 2011/12/20/accepted PY - 2011/12/22/entrez PY - 2011/12/22/pubmed PY - 2012/3/27/medline SP - 137 EP - 137 JF - Nutrition journal JO - Nutr J VL - 10 N2 - BACKGROUND: Although Iran is a high-risk region for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), dietary factors that may contribute to this high incidence have not been thoroughly studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of macronutrients, vitamins and minerals on the risk of ESCC. METHODS: In this hospital-based case-control study, 47 cases with incident ESCC and 96 controls were interviewed and usual dietary intakes were collected using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Data were modeled through unconditional multiple logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), controlling for age, sex, gastrointestinal reflux, body mass index, smoking history (status, intensity and duration), physical activity, and education. RESULTS: ESCC cases consumed significantly more hot foods and beverages and fried and barbecued meals, compared to the controls (p < 0.05). After adjusting for potential confounders, the risk of ESCC increased significantly in the highest tertiles of saturated fat [OR:2.88,95%CI:1.15-3.08], cholesterol [OR:1.53, 95%CI: 1.41-4.13], discretionary calorie [OR:1.51, 95%CI: 1.06-3.84], sodium [OR:1.49,95%CI:1.12-2.89] and total fat intakes [OR:1.48, 95%CI:1.09-3.04]. In contrast, being in the highest tertile of carbohydrate, dietary fiber and (n-3) fatty acid intake reduced the ESCC risk by 78%, 71% and 68%, respectively. The most cancer-protective effect was observed for the combination of high folate and vitamin E intakes (OR: 0.02, 95%CI: 0.00-0.87; p < 0.001). Controls consumed 623.5 times higher selenium, 5.48 times as much β-carotene and 1.98 times as much α-tocopherol as the amount ESCC cases consumed. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that high intake of nutrients primarily found in plant-based foods is associated with a reduced esophageal cancer risk. Some nutrients such as folate, vitamin E and selenium might play major roles in the etiology of ESCC and their status may eventually be used as an epidemiological marker for esophageal cancer in Iran, and perhaps other high-risk regions. SN - 1475-2891 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22185224/Macronutrients_vitamins_and_minerals_intake_and_risk_of_esophageal_squamous_cell_carcinoma:_a_case_control_study_in_Iran_ L2 - https://nutritionj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1475-2891-10-137 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -