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Differences in fruit and vegetable intake and their determinants among 11-year-old schoolchildren between 2003 and 2009.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2011 Dec 22; 8:141.IJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Fruit and vegetable (FV) intake in children in the Netherlands is much lower than recommended. Recurrent appraisal of intake levels is important for detecting changes in intake over time and to inform future interventions and policies. The aim of the present study was to investigate differences in fruit and vegetable intake, and whether these could be explained by differences in potential determinants of FV intake in 11-year-old Dutch schoolchildren, by comparing two school samples assessed in 2003 and 2009.

METHODS

For 1105 children of the Pro Children study in 2003 and 577 children of the Pro Greens study in 2009 complete data on intake and behavioural determinants were available. The self-administered questionnaire included questions on children's ethnicity, usual fruit and vegetable intake, mother's educational level, and important potential determinants of fruit and vegetable intake.Multiple regression analysis was applied to test for differences in intake and determinants between study samples. Mediation analyses were used to investigate whether the potential mediators explained the differences in intake between the two samples.

RESULTS

In 2009, more children complied with the World Health Organization recommendation of 400 g fruit and vegetables per day (17.0%) than in 2003 (11.8%, p = 0.004). Fruit consumption was significantly higher in the sample of 2009 than in the sample of 2003 (difference = 23.8 (95%CI: 8.1; 39.5) grams/day). This difference was mainly explained by a difference in the parental demand regarding their child's intake (23.6%), followed by the child's knowledge of the fruit recommendation (14.2%) and parental facilitation of consumption (18.5%). Vegetable intake was lower in the 2009 sample than in the 2003 sample (12.3 (95%CI -21.0; -3.6). This difference could not be explained by the assessed mediators.

CONCLUSIONS

The findings indicate that fruit intake among 11-year-olds improved somewhat between 2003 and 2009. Vegetable intake, however, appears to have declined somewhat between 2003 and 2009. Since a better knowledge of the recommendation, parental demand and facilitation explained most of the observed fruit consumption difference, future interventions may specifically address these potential mediators. Further, the provision of vegetables in the school setting should be considered in order to increase children's vegetable intake.

Authors+Show Affiliations

The EMGO+ Institute for Health and Care Research and the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, VU University Medical Center, Van der Boechorststraat 7, 1081 BT, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

22192661

Citation

Fischer, Claudia, et al. "Differences in Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Their Determinants Among 11-year-old Schoolchildren Between 2003 and 2009." The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, vol. 8, 2011, p. 141.
Fischer C, Brug J, Tak NI, et al. Differences in fruit and vegetable intake and their determinants among 11-year-old schoolchildren between 2003 and 2009. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2011;8:141.
Fischer, C., Brug, J., Tak, N. I., Yngve, A., & te Velde, S. J. (2011). Differences in fruit and vegetable intake and their determinants among 11-year-old schoolchildren between 2003 and 2009. The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 8, 141. https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-8-141
Fischer C, et al. Differences in Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Their Determinants Among 11-year-old Schoolchildren Between 2003 and 2009. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2011 Dec 22;8:141. PubMed PMID: 22192661.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Differences in fruit and vegetable intake and their determinants among 11-year-old schoolchildren between 2003 and 2009. AU - Fischer,Claudia, AU - Brug,Johannes, AU - Tak,Nannah I, AU - Yngve,Agneta, AU - te Velde,Saskia J, Y1 - 2011/12/22/ PY - 2011/01/28/received PY - 2011/12/22/accepted PY - 2011/12/24/entrez PY - 2011/12/24/pubmed PY - 2012/3/20/medline SP - 141 EP - 141 JF - The international journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity JO - Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act VL - 8 N2 - BACKGROUND: Fruit and vegetable (FV) intake in children in the Netherlands is much lower than recommended. Recurrent appraisal of intake levels is important for detecting changes in intake over time and to inform future interventions and policies. The aim of the present study was to investigate differences in fruit and vegetable intake, and whether these could be explained by differences in potential determinants of FV intake in 11-year-old Dutch schoolchildren, by comparing two school samples assessed in 2003 and 2009. METHODS: For 1105 children of the Pro Children study in 2003 and 577 children of the Pro Greens study in 2009 complete data on intake and behavioural determinants were available. The self-administered questionnaire included questions on children's ethnicity, usual fruit and vegetable intake, mother's educational level, and important potential determinants of fruit and vegetable intake.Multiple regression analysis was applied to test for differences in intake and determinants between study samples. Mediation analyses were used to investigate whether the potential mediators explained the differences in intake between the two samples. RESULTS: In 2009, more children complied with the World Health Organization recommendation of 400 g fruit and vegetables per day (17.0%) than in 2003 (11.8%, p = 0.004). Fruit consumption was significantly higher in the sample of 2009 than in the sample of 2003 (difference = 23.8 (95%CI: 8.1; 39.5) grams/day). This difference was mainly explained by a difference in the parental demand regarding their child's intake (23.6%), followed by the child's knowledge of the fruit recommendation (14.2%) and parental facilitation of consumption (18.5%). Vegetable intake was lower in the 2009 sample than in the 2003 sample (12.3 (95%CI -21.0; -3.6). This difference could not be explained by the assessed mediators. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate that fruit intake among 11-year-olds improved somewhat between 2003 and 2009. Vegetable intake, however, appears to have declined somewhat between 2003 and 2009. Since a better knowledge of the recommendation, parental demand and facilitation explained most of the observed fruit consumption difference, future interventions may specifically address these potential mediators. Further, the provision of vegetables in the school setting should be considered in order to increase children's vegetable intake. SN - 1479-5868 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22192661/Differences_in_fruit_and_vegetable_intake_and_their_determinants_among_11_year_old_schoolchildren_between_2003_and_2009_ L2 - https://ijbnpa.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1479-5868-8-141 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -