Oral contraceptives and breast cancer.Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1990 Oct; 163(4 Pt 2):1379-87.AJ
Among women in general the risk of breast cancer through 59 years of age does not appear to be affected appreciably by the use of oral contraceptives. Nonetheless, concern continues to be expressed about the effects of early age at first use, long-term duration of use, formulation, and a variety of other factors thought to influence breast cancer risk in the presence of oral contraception. A number of recent studies restricted to young women suggest that long-term use may increase the risk of disease occurring very early, but the present lack of consistent findings in well-conducted epidemiologic studies prevents any certain conclusion with regard to cause-and-effect. However, if an increased risk were indeed present, the most plausible interpretation is that long-term oral contraception promotes earlier clinical manifestation of breast cancer in some women while having no net impact on their lifetime risk of the disease.