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Gambling when sleep deprived: don't bet on stimulants.
Chronobiol Int. 2012 Feb; 29(1):43-54.CI

Abstract

Recent evidence suggests that sleep deprivation leads to suboptimal decision-making on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), a pattern that appears to be unaffected by moderate doses of caffeine. It is not known whether impaired decision-making could be reversed by higher doses of caffeine or by other stimulant countermeasures, such as dextroamphetamine or modafinil. Fifty-four diurnally active healthy subjects completed alternate versions of the IGT at rested baseline, at 23 and 46 h awake, and following a night of recovery sleep. After 44 h awake, participants received a double-blind dose of caffeine (600 mg), dextroamphetamine (20 mg), modafinil (400 mg), or placebo. At baseline, participants showed a normal pattern of advantageous performance, whereas both sleep-deprived sessions were associated with suboptimal decision-making on the IGT. Following stimulant administration on the second night of sleep deprivation, groups receiving caffeine, dextroamphetamine, or modafinil showed significant reduction in subjective sleepiness and improvement in psychomotor vigilance, but decision-making on the IGT remained impaired for all stimulants and did not differ from placebo. Decision-making returned to normal following recovery sleep. These findings are consistent with prior research showing that sleep deprivation leads to suboptimal decision-making on some types of tasks, particularly those that rely heavily on emotion processing regions of the brain, such as the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Moreover, the deficits in decision-making were not reversed by commonly used stimulant countermeasures, despite restoration of psychomotor vigilance and alertness. These three stimulants may restore some, but not all, aspects of cognitive functioning during sleep deprivation.

Authors+Show Affiliations

McLean Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Belmont, Massachusetts 02478, USA. Killgore@mclean.harvard.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

22217100

Citation

Killgore, William D S., et al. "Gambling when Sleep Deprived: Don't Bet On Stimulants." Chronobiology International, vol. 29, no. 1, 2012, pp. 43-54.
Killgore WD, Grugle NL, Balkin TJ. Gambling when sleep deprived: don't bet on stimulants. Chronobiol Int. 2012;29(1):43-54.
Killgore, W. D., Grugle, N. L., & Balkin, T. J. (2012). Gambling when sleep deprived: don't bet on stimulants. Chronobiology International, 29(1), 43-54. https://doi.org/10.3109/07420528.2011.635230
Killgore WD, Grugle NL, Balkin TJ. Gambling when Sleep Deprived: Don't Bet On Stimulants. Chronobiol Int. 2012;29(1):43-54. PubMed PMID: 22217100.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Gambling when sleep deprived: don't bet on stimulants. AU - Killgore,William D S, AU - Grugle,Nancy L, AU - Balkin,Thomas J, PY - 2012/1/6/entrez PY - 2012/1/6/pubmed PY - 2012/5/1/medline SP - 43 EP - 54 JF - Chronobiology international JO - Chronobiol Int VL - 29 IS - 1 N2 - Recent evidence suggests that sleep deprivation leads to suboptimal decision-making on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), a pattern that appears to be unaffected by moderate doses of caffeine. It is not known whether impaired decision-making could be reversed by higher doses of caffeine or by other stimulant countermeasures, such as dextroamphetamine or modafinil. Fifty-four diurnally active healthy subjects completed alternate versions of the IGT at rested baseline, at 23 and 46 h awake, and following a night of recovery sleep. After 44 h awake, participants received a double-blind dose of caffeine (600 mg), dextroamphetamine (20 mg), modafinil (400 mg), or placebo. At baseline, participants showed a normal pattern of advantageous performance, whereas both sleep-deprived sessions were associated with suboptimal decision-making on the IGT. Following stimulant administration on the second night of sleep deprivation, groups receiving caffeine, dextroamphetamine, or modafinil showed significant reduction in subjective sleepiness and improvement in psychomotor vigilance, but decision-making on the IGT remained impaired for all stimulants and did not differ from placebo. Decision-making returned to normal following recovery sleep. These findings are consistent with prior research showing that sleep deprivation leads to suboptimal decision-making on some types of tasks, particularly those that rely heavily on emotion processing regions of the brain, such as the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Moreover, the deficits in decision-making were not reversed by commonly used stimulant countermeasures, despite restoration of psychomotor vigilance and alertness. These three stimulants may restore some, but not all, aspects of cognitive functioning during sleep deprivation. SN - 1525-6073 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22217100/Gambling_when_sleep_deprived:_don't_bet_on_stimulants_ L2 - https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.3109/07420528.2011.635230 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -