Nonmotor manifestations in Parkinson disease.Neurologist. 2012 Jan; 18(1):1-16.N
Although the diagnosis of Parkinson disease (PD) still relies mainly on the appearance of its classical motor features of resting tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and postural instability, nonmotor manifestations in PD are now recognized as an integral component of this multisystem disorder.
Nonmotor complications in PD occur commonly. The current understanding of cognitive dysfunction; neuropsychiatric manifestations including psychosis, impulsive control, and compulsive disorders, depression, anxiety and apathy; autonomic complications such as hypotension, erectile dysfunction, and urinary complications; sleep disorders and other nonmotor manifestations are summarized in this review.
Nonmotor complications often carry a greater impact than motor features in PD. Therefore, heightened awareness and proper recognition of these features are critical in improving a Parkinson patient's quality of life.