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Effects of contraceptives on serum trace elements, calcium and phosphorus levels.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Women on different contraceptive methods have been linked with the development of various diseases and possible changes in serum trace elements and vitamins of women on contraceptives have been postulated. Therefore, the relationship between contraceptive use and trace elements needs to be investigated.

METHODS

This is a cross-sectional randomized study. After informed consent was obtained, blood samples were collected from a total of 100 women of child-bearing age on different contraceptive methods: 50 on oral contraceptives, 25 on injectables and another 25 on intra-uterine device. Blood samples were also collected from another 50 age-matched non-contraceptive users to serve as control. Serum was analysed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer for zinc, copper manganese, iron, selenium, cadmium, lead and magnesium while colorimetric method was used for phosphorus and calcium. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated as weight in kilogram/height in meter squared. Results obtained from laboratory analysis and anthropometric measurements were analysed using computer SPSS package.

RESULTS

The mean serum zinc, selenium, phosphorus and magnesium levels obtained from subjects on contraceptives were significantly lower (p < 0.01, p < 0.05, p < 0.05 and p < 0.05 respectively) than those of the control group. However, the mean serum copper iron, calcium and cadmium levels were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in participants on contraceptive when compared with the control group. Manganese and lead levels were similar in participants and control groups. Correlation analysis shows significant association between some trace elements and the duration of contraception and body mass index of the participants.

CONCLUSION

The study showed and confirmed reduced levels of trace elements in women on contraceptives. The reduction is proportional to the duration of contraceptive use.

Links

Authors+Show Affiliations

,

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Wellness Sciences, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Bellville, South Africa.

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Source

The West Indian medical journal 60:3 2011 Jun pg 308-15

MeSH

Adolescent
Adult
Calcium
Contraceptives, Oral
Copper
Female
Humans
Intrauterine Devices
Iron
Magnesium
Male
Phosphorus
Selenium
Spectrophotometry, Atomic
Trace Elements
Young Adult
Zinc

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial

Language

eng

PubMed ID

22224344

Citation

Akinloye, O, et al. "Effects of Contraceptives On Serum Trace Elements, Calcium and Phosphorus Levels." The West Indian Medical Journal, vol. 60, no. 3, 2011, pp. 308-15.
Akinloye O, Adebayo TO, Oguntibeju OO, et al. Effects of contraceptives on serum trace elements, calcium and phosphorus levels. West Indian Med J. 2011;60(3):308-15.
Akinloye, O., Adebayo, T. O., Oguntibeju, O. O., Oparinde, D. P., & Ogunyemi, E. O. (2011). Effects of contraceptives on serum trace elements, calcium and phosphorus levels. The West Indian Medical Journal, 60(3), pp. 308-15.
Akinloye O, et al. Effects of Contraceptives On Serum Trace Elements, Calcium and Phosphorus Levels. West Indian Med J. 2011;60(3):308-15. PubMed PMID: 22224344.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Effects of contraceptives on serum trace elements, calcium and phosphorus levels. AU - Akinloye,O, AU - Adebayo,T O, AU - Oguntibeju,O O, AU - Oparinde,D P, AU - Ogunyemi,E O, PY - 2012/1/10/entrez PY - 2012/1/10/pubmed PY - 2012/1/27/medline SP - 308 EP - 15 JF - The West Indian medical journal JO - West Indian Med J VL - 60 IS - 3 N2 - BACKGROUND: Women on different contraceptive methods have been linked with the development of various diseases and possible changes in serum trace elements and vitamins of women on contraceptives have been postulated. Therefore, the relationship between contraceptive use and trace elements needs to be investigated. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional randomized study. After informed consent was obtained, blood samples were collected from a total of 100 women of child-bearing age on different contraceptive methods: 50 on oral contraceptives, 25 on injectables and another 25 on intra-uterine device. Blood samples were also collected from another 50 age-matched non-contraceptive users to serve as control. Serum was analysed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer for zinc, copper manganese, iron, selenium, cadmium, lead and magnesium while colorimetric method was used for phosphorus and calcium. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated as weight in kilogram/height in meter squared. Results obtained from laboratory analysis and anthropometric measurements were analysed using computer SPSS package. RESULTS: The mean serum zinc, selenium, phosphorus and magnesium levels obtained from subjects on contraceptives were significantly lower (p < 0.01, p < 0.05, p < 0.05 and p < 0.05 respectively) than those of the control group. However, the mean serum copper iron, calcium and cadmium levels were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in participants on contraceptive when compared with the control group. Manganese and lead levels were similar in participants and control groups. Correlation analysis shows significant association between some trace elements and the duration of contraception and body mass index of the participants. CONCLUSION: The study showed and confirmed reduced levels of trace elements in women on contraceptives. The reduction is proportional to the duration of contraceptive use. SN - 0043-3144 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22224344/Effects_of_contraceptives_on_serum_trace_elements_calcium_and_phosphorus_levels_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -