Plumbagin inhibits cell growth and potentiates apoptosis in human gastric cancer cells in vitro through the NF-κB signaling pathway.Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2012 Feb; 33(2):242-9.AP
To investigate the effects and underlying mechanisms of plumbagin, a naphthoquinone derived from medicinal plant Plumbago zeylanica, on human gastric cancer (GC) cells.
Human gastric cancer cell lines SGC-7901, MKN-28, and AGS were used. The cell viability was examined using CCK-8 viability assay. Cell proliferation rate was determined using both clonogenic assay and EdU incorporation assay. Apoptosis was detected via Annexin V/propidium iodide double-labeled flow cytometry. Western blotting was used to assess the expression of both NF-κB-regulated gene products and TNF-α-induced activation of p65, IκBα, and IKK. The intracellular location of NF-κB p65 was detected using confocal microscopy.
Plumbagin (2.5-40 μmol/L) concentration-dependently reduced the viability of the GC cells. The IC(50) value of plumbagin in SGC-7901, MKN-28, and AGS cells was 19.12, 13.64, and 10.12 μmol/L, respectively. The compound (5-20 μmol/L) concentration-dependently induced apoptosis of SGC-7901 cells, and potentiated the sensitivity of SGC-7901 cells to chemotherapeutic agents TNF-αand cisplatin. The compound (10 μmol/L) downregulated the expression of NF-κB-regulated gene products, including IAP1, XIAP, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, tumor factor (TF), and VEGF. In addition to inhibition of NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation, the compound also suppressed TNF-α-induced phosphorylation of p65 and IKK, and the degradation of IκBα.
Plumbagin inhibits cell growth and potentiates apoptosis in human GC cells through the NF-κB pathway.