Ca2+, Mg2+, Li+, Na+, and K+ distributions in the headgroup region of binary membranes of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylserine as seen by deuterium NMR.Biochemistry. 1990 Jul 31; 29(30):7077-89.B
The binding of calcium, magnesium, lithium, potassium, and sodium to membrane bilayers of 5 to 1 (M/M) 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoylphosphatidylcholine (POPC) and 1-palmitoyl- 2-oleoylphosphatidylserine (POPS) was investigated by using deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance (2H NMR). Both lipids were deuteriated on their polar headgroups, and spectra were obtained at 25 degrees C in the liquid-crystalline phase as a function of salt concentration. The spectra obtained with calcium were correlated with 45CaCl2 binding studies to determine the effective membrane-bound calcium at low calcium binding, up to 0.78 calcium per POPS. Deuterium quadrupolar splittings of both POPC and POPS headgroups were shown to be very sensitive to calcium binding. The behavior of these two headgroups over a wide range of CaCl2 concentrations suggests that Ca2+ binding occurs in at least two steps, the first step being achieved with 0.5 M CaCl2, with a stoichiometry of 0.5 Ca2+ per POPS. Correlations of the deuterium Ca2+ binding data with related data obtained after incorporation of a cationic integral peptide showed that the effects of these two cationic molecules of the POPS headgroup are qualitatively similar, and provided further support for two-step Ca2+ binding to the POPC/POPS 5:1 membranes. The corresponding data obtained with magnesium, lithium, and potassium indicate that these cations interact with both the choline and serine headgroups. The amplitudes of headgroup perturbations could be partly correlated to the relative affinities of the metallic cations for the lipid membrane. The two-step binding described with Ca2+ appears to be relevant to the Mg2+ data, and in certain limits to the Li+ data. The data were interpreted in terms of conformational changes of the lipid headgroups induced by an electric field due to the charges of the membrane-bound metallic cations. A conformational change of the serine headgroup induced by the membrane-bound charges is proposed. We propose that the metallic cations can be differentiated on the basis of their respective spatial distribution functions relative to the choline and serine headgroups. According to this interpretation, the divalent cations Ca2+ and Mg2+ are more deeply buried in the membrane than monovalent Na+ and K+, the case of Li+ being intermediate of the latter two. This conclusion is discussed in relation to fundamental theories of the spatial distribution of ions near the interface between water and smooth charged solid surfaces.