Evaluation of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and nickel in biological samples (scalp hair, serum, blood, and urine) of Pakistani viral hepatitis (A - E) patients and controls.Clin Lab 2011; 57(11-12):847-57CL
The aim of present study was to compare the level of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and nickel (Ni) in biological samples (serum, blood, urine, and scalp hair) of patients suffering from different viral hepatitis (A, B, C, D, and E; n = 521) of both genders, age range 31 - 45 years. For comparative study, 255 age-matched control subjects of both genders residing in the same city were selected as referents.
The digests of all biological samples were analysed for Cd, Pb, and Ni by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). The validity and accuracy of the methodology was checked by using certified reference materials (CRMs) and with those values obtained by conventional wet acid digestion method on the same CRMs.
The results of this study showed that the mean values of As, Cd, Ni, and Pb were higher in blood, serum, and scalp hair samples of hepatitis patients than age-matched control subjects. The urinary levels of these elements were found to be higher in the hepatitis patients than in the age-matched healthy controls (p < 0.001).
These results are consistent with literature-reported data, confirming that the overload of these toxic elements can directly cause lipid peroxidation and eventually hepatic damage.