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Antibiotic resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae: origin, evolution, and lessons learned for the future.
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2011 Aug; 1230:E19-28.AN

Abstract

The strict human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae has caused gonorrhea for thousands of years, and currently gonorrhea is the second most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Given the ancient nature of N. gonorrhoeae and its unique obligate relationship with humankind over the millennia, its remarkable ability to adapt to the host immune system and cause repeated infections, and its propensity to develop resistance to all clinically useful antibiotics, the gonococcus is an ideal pathogen on which to study the evolution of bacterial pathogenesis, including antimicrobial resistance, over the long term and within the host during infection. Recently, the first gonococcus displaying high-level resistance to ceftriaxone, identified in Japan, was characterized in detail. Ceftriaxone is the last remaining option for empirical first-line treatment, and N. gonorrhoeae now seems to be evolving into a true "superbug." In the near future, gonorrhea may become untreatable in certain circumstances. Herein, the history of antibiotics used for treatment of gonorrhea, the evolution of resistance emergence in N. gonorrhoeae, the linkage between resistance and biological fitness of N. gonorrhoeae, lessons learned, and future perspectives are reviewed and discussed.

Authors+Show Affiliations

National Reference Laboratory for Pathogenic Neisseria, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Microbiology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden. magnus.unemo@orebroll.seNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

22239555

Citation

Unemo, Magnus, and William M. Shafer. "Antibiotic Resistance in Neisseria Gonorrhoeae: Origin, Evolution, and Lessons Learned for the Future." Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1230, 2011, pp. E19-28.
Unemo M, Shafer WM. Antibiotic resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae: origin, evolution, and lessons learned for the future. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2011;1230:E19-28.
Unemo, M., & Shafer, W. M. (2011). Antibiotic resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae: origin, evolution, and lessons learned for the future. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1230, E19-28. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2011.06215.x
Unemo M, Shafer WM. Antibiotic Resistance in Neisseria Gonorrhoeae: Origin, Evolution, and Lessons Learned for the Future. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2011;1230:E19-28. PubMed PMID: 22239555.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Antibiotic resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae: origin, evolution, and lessons learned for the future. AU - Unemo,Magnus, AU - Shafer,William M, PY - 2012/1/14/entrez PY - 2012/1/14/pubmed PY - 2012/3/6/medline SP - E19 EP - 28 JF - Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences JO - Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. VL - 1230 N2 - The strict human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae has caused gonorrhea for thousands of years, and currently gonorrhea is the second most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Given the ancient nature of N. gonorrhoeae and its unique obligate relationship with humankind over the millennia, its remarkable ability to adapt to the host immune system and cause repeated infections, and its propensity to develop resistance to all clinically useful antibiotics, the gonococcus is an ideal pathogen on which to study the evolution of bacterial pathogenesis, including antimicrobial resistance, over the long term and within the host during infection. Recently, the first gonococcus displaying high-level resistance to ceftriaxone, identified in Japan, was characterized in detail. Ceftriaxone is the last remaining option for empirical first-line treatment, and N. gonorrhoeae now seems to be evolving into a true "superbug." In the near future, gonorrhea may become untreatable in certain circumstances. Herein, the history of antibiotics used for treatment of gonorrhea, the evolution of resistance emergence in N. gonorrhoeae, the linkage between resistance and biological fitness of N. gonorrhoeae, lessons learned, and future perspectives are reviewed and discussed. SN - 1749-6632 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22239555/Antibiotic_resistance_in_Neisseria_gonorrhoeae:_origin_evolution_and_lessons_learned_for_the_future_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2011.06215.x DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -