Chemical compositions and sources of atmospheric PM10 in heating, non-heating and sand periods at a coal-based city in northeastern China.J Environ Monit 2012; 14(3):852-65JE
Mass concentrations and chemical components (18 elements, 9 ions, organic carbon [OC] and elemental carbon [EC]) in atmospheric PM(10) were measured at five sites in Fushun during heating, non-heating and sand periods in 2006-2007. PM(10) mass concentrations varied from 62.0 to 226.3 μg m(-3), with 21% of the total samples' mass concentrations exceeding the Chinese national secondary standard value of 150 μg m(-3), mainly concentrated in heating and sand periods. Crustal elements, trace elements, water-soluble ions, OC and EC represented 20-47%, 2-9%, 13-34%, 15-34% and 13-25% of the particulate matter mass concentrations, respectively. OC and crustal elements exhibited the highest mass percentages, at 27-34% and 30-47% during heating and sand period. Local agricultural residuals burning may contribute to EC and ion concentrations, as shown by ion temporal variation and OC and EC correlation analysis. Heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu and Mn) from coal combustion and industrial processes should be paid attention to in heating and sand periods. The anion/cation ratios exhibited their highest values for the background site with the influence of stationary sources on its upper wind direction during the sand period. Secondary organic carbon were 1.6-21.7, 1.5-23.0, 0.4-17.0, 0.2-33.0 and 0.2-21.1 μg m(-3), accounting for 20-77%, 44-88%, 4-77%, 8-69% and 4-73% of OC for the five sampling sites ZQ, DZ, XH, WH and SK, respectively. From the temporal and spatial variation analysis of major species, coal combustion, agricultural residual burning and industrial emission including dust re-suspended from raw material storage piles were important sources for atmospheric PM(10) in Fushun at heating, non-heating and sand periods, respectively. It was confirmed by principal component analysis that coal combustion, vehicle emission, industrial activities, soil dust, cement and construction dust and biomass burning were the main sources for PM(10) in this coal-based city.